1801: The population of Scotland is 1,608,000.
1801: The first Gaelic language version of the Bible is published.
1802: William Symington's "Charlotte Dundas" becomes the world's first steam-powered tug when it pulls two 70 ton barges on the Forth and Clyde Canal.
19 November 1805: Explorer Mungo Park sets sail downstream into the unknown reaches of the River Niger in a large canoe with what remains of his ill-fated expedition.
13 July 1807: Henry Benedict Stuart dies in Rome. He is the fourth and final Jacobite to publicly lay claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.
29 December 1807: Orcadian Isobel Gunn gives birth to a son while posing as a man and working for The Hudson's Bay Company in Canada.
29 February 1808: The birth in Forres of Hugh Falconer, an important botanist, geologist and paleontologist particularly remembered for his work on the flora, fauna and fossils of the Indian sub-continent.
16 January 1809: The death of Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna.
9 January 1811: The first women's golf tournament anywhere in the world is held at Musselburgh.
28 May 1811: The death of Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, the lawyer and politician who became the last person to be impeached in the United Kingdom.
16 September 1812: The birth near Duns of Robert Fortune, a botanist and plant collector best known for breaking the Chinese tea monopoly when he smuggled large numbers of tea plants from China to India.
19 March 1813: The birth in Blantyre of David Livingstone, one of the most famous of the European missionaries and explorers who opened up the interior of Africa during the mid 1800s.
1814: The "year of the burning" on the 1.5 million acre estates of the Countess of Sutherland and her husband, the Marquess of Stafford (later to become the Duke and Duchess of Sutherland), from which 15,000 people were cleared between 1811 and 1821, largely by the estate factor, Patrick Sellar, in the most notorious of the Highland Clearances.
1815: The kelp industry, which provides the main source of income to many coastal communities in the Highlands, collapses as there is greater access to cheaper continental sources of alkalis at the end of the Napoleonic wars.
18 June 1815: Ensign Charles Ewart captures the regimental eagle of the French 45th Regiment of the Line at the Battle of Waterloo.
25 January 1817: The Scotsman newspaper publishes its first edition in Edinburgh.
24 May 1819: The birth in London of Princess Victoria of Kent, later to become Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Empress of India.
26 May 1819: The Honours of Scotland, the crown jewels, are put on display in Edinburgh Castle after being disinterred by Sir Walter Scott from the bowels of the castle where they had been placed in 1707.
25 August 1819: The death of James Watt, the engineer and inventor whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental in bringing about the industrial revolution.
12 March 1820: The death of Sir Alexander Mackenzie (Alasdair MacCoinnich), the explorer of western Canada.
2 April 1820: The Radical Rising or Radical War gets under way in west central Scotland. Its ringleaders are later executed.
5 April 1820: The "Battle of Bonnymuir", a skirmish between Radical weavers and Government troops near Bonnybridge, sees the end of the Radical War or Scottish Insurrection.
4 October 1821: The death of John Rennie, one of the greatest engineers of his age who designed many bridges, canals, and docks.
25 February 1822: The birth near Carlisle of Sir Thomas Bouch, the eminent railway engineer best known as the designer of the ill-fated Tay Rail Bridge, which collapsed with the loss of 75 lives on 28 December 1879.
16 May 1823: The death in France of Grace Elliott, the renowned Scottish society beauty and courtesan who witnessed at first hand the French Revolution.
19 April 1824: The death in Greece of the leading poet of the Romantic movement and Greek liberation fighter George Byron, 6th Baron Byron.
15 November 1824: The start of the Great Fire of Edinburgh, which continues to burn for five days with the loss of thirteen lives.
1826: Steam trains are first used to pull coal wagons in Scottish collieries.
10 January 1826: Explorer Alexander Gordon Laing sets off from Salah to complete his journey across the Sahara Desert to Timbuktu.
26 September 1826: The murder near Timbuktu of Alexander Gordon Laing, the first European to reach the city from the north.
2 April 1831: The birth in Edinburgh of David MacGibbon, the architect and a partner in the practice of MacGibbon and Ross, best known today for their comprehensive multi-volume books about Scotland's castles and churches.
13 June 1831: The birth in Edinburgh of James Clerk Maxwell, widely regarded as one of greatest scientists of any era. His work on the theory of electromagnetism makes him the father of modern physics and he also made fundamental contributions to mathematics, astronomy and engineering.
27 September 1831: The first passenger railway in Scotland, between Glasgow and Garnkirk in Lanarkshire, begins operations.
1832: The Reform Act broadens the base of voters.
16 July 1832: A storm catches the Shetland fishing fleet at sea and sinks 31 boats or "sixerns" with the loss of 105 lives.
1833: The Factories Act regulates the hours of young workers and bans work by children under 9.
30 May 1833: The death of Sir John Malcolm, a soldier and diplomat during the expansion of the British Empire.
12 July 1834: The death in Hawaii of David Douglas, the botanist who gave his name to the Douglas Fir.
2 September 1834: The death in London of the civil engineer, road, bridge and canal builder Thomas Telford. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.
25 November 1835: The birth in Dunfermline of Andrew Carnegie, who founded what became the Carnegie Steel Company in the United States. He is principally remembered for funding large numbers of libraries and educational establishments in the US, Scotland and elsewhere.
22 April 1838: The 703 ton paddle steamer SS Sirius, built in Leith, becomes the first ship to cross the Atlantic entirely powered by steam.
28 June 1838: Queen Victoria is crowned in Westminster Abbey in London.
21 January 1840: The birth of the pioneering woman doctor and champion of medical education for women, Sophia Jex-Blake.
1841: The population of Scotland is 2,620,000.
11 January 1841: Scottish inventor Alexander Bain is awarded a patent for the electric clock.
1 June 1841: The eminent artist Sir David Wilkie dies on board a ship in the Mediterranean.
1 June 1841: The death in New York of Robert Allan, a weaver who became more widely known for the songs he composed and the poetry he wrote. He had arrived in New York on 25 May, to start a new life in the new world, and died six days later.
13 November 1841: James Braid, the father of hypnotism, attends a demonstration of "mesmerism" that begins his interest in the subject.
15 February 1842: The death in London of Archibald Menzies, a surgeon and naturalist who made the first recorded ascent of Mauna Loa in Hawaii.
27 February 1843: The death of William Jardine, the ship's surgeon who went on to become one of the founders of the Hong Kong based Jardine Matheson trading company.
18 May 1843: In what becomes known as "The Disruption", 121 ministers and 73 elders walk out of the Church of Scotland General Assembly to form the Free Church of Scotland.
26 October 1845: The death of collector and writer of songs and poems, Carolina Oliphant, Baroness Nairne.
1846: The Corn Law is repealed in the face of the failure of the potato crop and the widespread fear of starvation.
1846: Thomas Cook organises the first tourist trips to Scotland.
12 February 1846: The death in Ruthwell of Henry Duncan, the founder of the world's first savings bank.
10 May 1846: The birth in Glasgow of Sir Thomas Lipton, who succeeded in establishing a chain of grocery stores across Great Britain; who gave his name to Lipton teas; and who repeatedly (and unsuccessfully) challenged for yachting's America's Cup.
23 May 1846: The death in Manchester of Ensign Charles Ewart, remembered for capturing the regimental eagle of the French 45th Regiment of the Line at the Battle of Waterloo.
5 July 1847: The last mail coach, now redundant because of the advance of the railways, runs between London and Edinburgh.
3 August 1847: The birth in Edinburgh of John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen and (from 1916) 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair. He was a politician who served as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and Governor General of Canada.
12 September 1847: The birth at Mount Stuart on the Isle of Bute of John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, remembered as a scholar, historian, archaeologist, romantic, mystic, and one of the greatest patrons of the arts in the Victorian era.
15 November 1847: Sir James Young Simpson gives the first public demonstration of his new anaesthetic and a few days later publishes his highly influential Account of a New Anaesthetic Agent.
1848: Queen Victoria leases the Balmoral estate on Deeside. She buys it in 1853 for £31,500.
5 October 1849: The Ardnamurchan Lighthouse is illuminated for the first time.