3000 BC: Maeshowe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.
3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall Yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.
3000 BC: Occupation of what may be the first Crannog or artificial islet residence, on the islet Eilean Domhnuill on Loch Olabhat in North Uist.
2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.
1400 BC: The era of Scota, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who features in the foundation myth of Ireland an Scotland, and who Scotland is named after.
500 BC: Crannogs, houses built on stilts or artificial islets, begin to appear widely on Scottish lochs.
200 BC to AD 200: Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.
AD 80: Julius Agricola Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.
AD 83: Julius Agricola invades northern Scotland.
AD 84: The Battle of Mons Graupius takes place at a location still uncertain. The Romans under Julius Agricola convincingly defeat the Caledonians under Calgacus. They fail to press home their advantage, however, and instead establish a defensive line of forts extending north-east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.
AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.
AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.
AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.
AD 208: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus launches the last campaign intended to conquer Scotland, establishing a major base at Cramond, on the site of a fort built in AD 142.
AD 211: Septimius Severus dies in York. His successor Caracalla abandons territory north of Hadrians Wall and in 212 the Romans withdraw from what will later become Scotland for the final time.
AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.
AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.
AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.
7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.
AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.
AD 562: St Moluag founds a settlement on the Isle of Lismore in the mouth of Loch Linnhe.
AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.
AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.
AD 678: St Nathalan dies on Deeside.
20 May 685: The Battle of Dunnichen or Nechtansmere, near Forfar. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria is decisively defeated by the Picts, paving the way for the development of a separate Scottish nation. The battle is later depicted on a cross slab at Aberlemno Kirk.
20 March 687: The death on Inner Farne Island of St Cuthbert, the a monk, bishop and hermit regarded as the patron saint of northern England.
6 March 757: The death on Bass Rock of Saint Baldred of Tyninghame.
8 June 793: The monastery at Lindisfarne suffers its first raid by Vikings. Others will follow, leading to the abandonment of the monastery in 875.
795: First recorded Viking raid (probably from Orkney), on Iona, which is raided twice more in the following decade.
839: The Picts, who have controlled all of Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde except for Argyll, suffer a heavy defeat at the hands of the Vikings. Most of the Pictish nobility is wiped out in the defeat, including King Bridei VI.
843: Kenneth Mac Alpin becomes King of the Scots of Dalriada; and later becomes King of the Picts of Pictland as well, unifying the main groups in Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line for the first time within the Kingdom of Alba.
870: Following a 15 week siege the Vikings capture the fortress at Dumbarton Rock guarding the entrance to the Clyde and the British Kingdom of Strathclyde.
872: Constantine I arranges the death of the King of Strathclyde in 872. He replaces him with his own brother in law, Rhun: effectively making Strathclyde a subordinate kingdom to Alba.
937: A joint army comprising Constantine II's Scots and Olaf III Guthfrithson's Vikings is defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh by King Athelstan of England in 937: largely securing the future of what is to become England.
945: Edmund, a Danish King ruling Northumbria, gives Cumbria to Malcolm I of Scotland in return for military support.