1450: James II demonstrates his power by executing two members of the Livingston family.
7 January 1451: The University of Glasgow is founded.
22 February 1452: James II invites the dangerously powerful 8th Earl of Douglas to Stirling Castle under a safe-conduct, where he stabs him and throws his body out of a window. Followers of the Earl subsequently sack the town of Stirling.
1455: James II completes his subjugation of the Black Douglas family by taking their land and castles in south-west Scotland.
1457: In an effort to ensure the population practice military skills, and archery in particular, James II decrees that "futeball and golfe be utterly cried down." He is widely ignored.
6 March 1457: King James II decrees that there should be regular archery practice and that "football and golf be utterly cried down and not used".
13 February 1462: The Treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish is signed between King Edward IV and John MacDonald II, Lord of the Isles. This effectively divides up northern Scotland and the islands should England conquer Scotland.
July 1466: The Boyd family kidnap James III now 14, and use his influence to enhance their own power, including a marriage to the King's sister.
10 July 1469: James III, now 18, marries 13 year old Margret of Denmark, Princess of Norway and Denmark and assumes his full powers over Scotland. Part of her dowry is mortgaged against Orkney and Shetland.
November 1469: Parliament upholds charges of treason against the Boyd family for their kidnap of James III in 1466. The head of the family, Sir Alexander Boyd, is executed and family land and property is seized.
October 1474: Marriage is arranged between James III's one year old son James and Lady Cecilia, Edward IV's three year old daughter.
1479: James III is worried by unrest amongst Scottish nobles who want him replaced, and arrests and imprisons his brothers Alexander and John. John subsequently dies in suspicious circumstances, but Alexander escapes via France to England.
November 1479: The arranged marriage between James III'syounger sister Margaret and Edward IV's brother in law collapses when it emerges she is pregnant by someone else. A period of peace between England and Scotland comes to an end.
1482: The English, on behalf of James III's exiled brother Alexander, invade southern Scotland. At Lauder the Scottish nobles kill many of King James III's advisers and arrest the King, returning him to captivity in Edinburgh Castle. The English take Edinburgh, but then withdraw, keeping both Berwick-upon-Tweed and Berwick Castle, which will now remain English. James IIIis released following apparent reconciliation with his brother Alexander, Duke of Albany. It is only temporary: further plotting sees him leave for France in 1484.
11 June 1488: James III seeks to capture his eldest son, James, Duke of Rothesay, who at 15 is becoming a focus for dissent in the kingdom. Following the Battle of Sauchieburn between their supporters near Stirling, on the site of the earlier Battle of Bannockburn, the injured James III is murdered by persons unknown.
28 June 1491: The birth of Henry Tudor, who as King Henry VIII of England had a huge impact on Scotland.
1492: Blind Harry dies. He is the minstrel whose verses have preserved the story of William Wallace, and which help shape Scottish views of the English for the rest of the millennium.
1493: John MacDonald II Lord of the Isles is tried by James IV and the lordship taken over by the king: ending a dynasty that has effectively ruled much of Western Scotland and the Isles for nearly 350 years.
1494: The first written reference appears to the art of distillation of whisky in Scotland.
1495: The University of Aberdeen is founded.
September 1496: James IV launches major raids on Northumberland.