2 August 1696: The death in Bruges of Captain Robert Campbell, the 5th Laird of Glen Lyon, and the officer commanding the government troops who massacred the MacDonalds of Glencoe on 13 February 1692.
2 August 1922: The death in Canada of Alexander Graham Bell, the scientist, inventor, and innovator best known for developing and patenting the telephone.
2 August 1938: The death of Captain Frank Barnwell, the aviation pioneer who, with his brother Harold, was responsible for the first powered flight in Scotland, and who later became a noted aircraft engineer with the Bristol Aeroplane Company.
3 August 1847: The birth in Edinburgh of John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 7th Earl of Aberdeen and (from 1916) 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair. He was a politician who served as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and Governor General of Canada.
4 August 1792: The birth in Annan of Edward Irving. He became a successful preacher who in 1833 was accused of heresy for announcing the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, and went on to form his own sect.
4 August 1914: Britain declares war on Germany.
5 August 1388: Scottish troops under James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas, decisively defeat an English army at the Battle of Otterburn in Northumberland.
5 August 1600: An attempt is allegedly made on James VI's life by the Gowrie family in Perth during what is known as the Gowrie conspiracy. Some suggest it was a plot by the King to avoid paying the £80,000 owed by the crown to the family.
5 August 1695: King William III approves the establishment of a General Post Office in Scotland.
5 August 1704: The Scottish Parliament refuses to raise taxes and threatens to withdraw troops from Marlborough's army in France unless the crown accepts the Act of Security and it is given Royal Assent. It is.
5 August 1876: The missionary Mary Slessor sets sail for Nigeria.
6 August 1879: The death in Munich of Johann von Lamont, the eminent Scottish-born astronomer.
7 August 1894: The first train arrives in Fort William on the newly opened West Highland Line.
7 August 1936: Air services begin from Barra Airport, the only beach airport anywhere in the world to be used for scheduled airline services.
8 August 1503: A "Treaty of Perpetual Peace" with England is followed by the marriage between James IV and Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII of England at Holyrood. This does little to interrupt James IV's succession of mistresses and illegitimate children.
9 August 1757: The birth of Thomas Telford, the man whose civil engineering achievements would transform Scotland.
10 August 1784: The death in Dover of the renowned portrait painter, Allan Ramsay (the Younger).
10 August 1935: The Perth Museum and Art Gallery's new building is opened by the Duke and Duchess of York, later to become King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
11 August 1919: The death in Massachusetts of Andrew Carnegie, the Scots-born industrialist and philanthropist.
12 August 1762: The birth in London of George IV, who served as king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of Hanover, from 29 January 1820 until his death in 1830.
12 August 1872: The death of Andrew Smith, a doctor and naturalist best known for his study of the zoology of South Africa.
12 August 1965: The death of Willie Gallacher, a trade unionist who served as a Communist Member of Parliament.
13 August 1907: The birth in India of Sir Basil Spence, the architect who produced many buildings in the UK and beyond in the Modernist/Brutalist style.
14 August 1863: The death of Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde the soldier remembered particularly for his service in the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny.
15 August 1040: Duncan I tries to impose his will on northern Scotland, but loses to Macbeth of Moray and Earl Thorfinn of Orkney at the Battle of Pitgaveny, near Elgin. Duncan is killed during the battle, and King Macbeth is crowned at Scone later in 1040.
15 August 1645: At the Battle of Kilsyth, midway between Stirling and Glasgow, Montrose and the Royalists again defeat the Covenanters, killing 3,000. He moves on to capture Glasgow and Edinburgh, effectively controlling Scotland.
15 August 1856: The birth of Keir Hardie, who would rise from extremely humble origins to become one of Britain's most well regarded politicians, and the first leader of the Labour Party.
15 August 1963: Henry Burnett becomes the last man to be hanged in Scotland, having been convicted of the murder of merchant seaman Thomas Guyan.
16 August 1864: The birth in India of Elsie Inglis, who would make her name as a pioneering surgeon and as a suffragette, and do much to improve medical care for women.
16 August 1944: John Logie Baird gives the world's first demonstration of a fully electronic colour television display using a 600 line system.
16 August 1963: The death of Joan Eardley, an important Glasgow-based artist who founded the "Catterline School" of artists.
17 August 1643: Scotland offers to support the Parliamentary side in the Civil War in return for the acceptance by the English of a "Solemn League and Covenant", in effect exporting Presbyterianism to them. Military aspects are settled quickly and the English Parliament later accepts the religious aspects of the Covenant.
17 August 1871: The death in London of Patrick Nasmyth, the celebrated landscape painter.
18 August 1661: The death of Robert Gordon of Straloch, the poet, mathematician, antiquary and geographer, primarily remembered for his cartography of Scotland.
19 August 1561: Mary Queen of Scots, aged eighteen and now a widow, is increasingly isolated in France, and has little choice but to accept an invitation to return to a now Protestant Scotland as Queen.
20 August 1589: James VI marries Anne of Denmark, daughter of King Frederik II of Denmark. The marriage is by proxy and her subsequent efforts to sail to Scotland see her blown back by storm to Norway, allegedly as a result of witchcraft.
21 August 1689: The Jacobite highland army attacks government forces in and around Dunkeld and its Cathedral at the Battle of Dunkeld. Both sides suffer heavy losses and much of the town is destroyed.
21 August 1930: Princess Margaret, daughter of the future King George VI, is born at Glamis Castle. She is the first royal princess to be born in Scotland for three centuries.
22 August 1138: The Scots army under David I is defeated at the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton in Yorkshire. Despite the defeat, the Treaty of Durham that follows in 1139 gives David I effective control over Northumbria and Cumbria.
22 August 1513: The Scottish army crosses the border with England, taking Norham Castle amongst others.
22 August 1642: Charles I, having failed to suppress or coerce the English Parliament by his will, takes it on by military might. The English Civil War begins.
22 August 1651: Charles II reaches Worcester with very little evidence of English Royalist support.
23 August 1305: The trial and execution in London of Sir William Wallace, one time Guardian of Scotland.
23 August 1913: Work begins on the rebuilding of Eilean Donan Castle. It will take until 1932 to complete.
25 August 1776: The death of David Hume, generally regarded as the most important philosopher ever to write in English.
25 August 1819: The death of James Watt, the engineer and inventor whose improvements to the steam engine were fundamental in bringing about the industrial revolution.
26 August 1565: Mary Queen of Scots leads an army out of Edinburgh to supress a rebellion led by her half brother James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, who is opposed to her marriage. She puts the rebellion to flight in what becomes known as the Chaseabout Raid.
26 August 1875: The birth in Perth of John Buchan, the lawyer and politician who became Governor General of Canada, and is most widely remembered as a prolific author of a wide range of fiction and non-fiction books,
26 August 1901: Eight coal miners and rescuers are killed in the Donibristle mining disaster in Fife when the mine is overwhelmed by an inflow of soft peat.
27 August 1695: Alexander Selkirk, the model for Robison Crusoe, is summoned to appear before the kirk-session (ecclesiastical court) in Lower Largo for unspecified indecent behaviour in church. He fails to appear, having run away to sea.
28 April 1914: Hugh Dowding is awarded his Royal Flying Corps "wings". He is best remembered as the commander of RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain.
29 August 1797: A peaceful demonstration in Tranent against conscription under the Militia Act is broken up by troops in what becomes known as the "Battle of Tranent", leading to twelve deaths.
29 August 1930: The remote Island of St Kilda, lying in the Atlantic to the west of the Western Isles, is evacuated.
30 August 1915: The Royal Research Ship Discovery reaches the Falkland Islands on a mission to rescue polar explorer Ernest Shackleton, to find he has already been rescued.