1 July 1505: The Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh are granted a charter by the City Council enabling them to practise surgery within the city. This marks the beginnings of the Royal College of Surgeons.
1 July 1543: The Treaty of Greenwich is agreed between King Henry VIII of England and the Earl of Arran, providing for the marriage of the then infant Mary, Queen of Scots to Henry's son. It is later repudiated by the Scottish Parliament.
1 July 1690: William of Orange defeats James VII/II at the Battle of the Boyne, north of Dublin in Ireland. James returns to France from Ireland, and the hopes of Scottish Jacobites of his return to Scotland evaporate.
1 July 1884: Allan Pinkerton, the founder of the Pinkerton Detective Agency and the US Secret Service, dies in Chicago.
1 July 1999: Queen Elizabeth II opens the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh. The First Minister of the Scottish Executive, the devolved Scottish Government, is Donald Dewar, who as Secretary of State for Scotland since 1997 had been the architect of devolution.
2 July 1644: The Parliamentary Army, reinforced by the Scottish Covenanters, defeat the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor.
2 July 1645: The Marquis of Montrose and the Royalists again defeat the Covenanters at the Battle of Alford, in Aberdeenshire, but this time with considerable loss of life on both sides. Montrose has defeated the Covenanters throughout northern Scotland.
3 July 1883: The steamer "Daphne" sinks with the loss of 124 lives on the Clyde during its maiden voyage.
4 July 1796: Robert Burns takes up residence at the Brow Inn to seek a cure for what we now know was rhumatic fever. The "cure" comprises drinking the waters of the Brow Well and bathing in the Solway Firth.
4 July 1799: The death of Sir John Anstruther, 2nd Baronet, a Scottish politician and industrialist who served as Member of Parliament for Anstruther Burghs on three occasions and is remembered for his harbour improvements at Pittenweem and the development of coal mining and salt extraction at St Monans.
4 July 1901: The death of Peter Guthrie Tait, a mathematical physicist best known for his joint-authorship of a textbook which defined the science of physics.
4 July 1913: The birth in Tokyo of Oswald Wynd, the novelist who sometimes wrote under the pseudonym "Gavin Black".
5 July 1560: The Treaty of Edinburgh is agreed between England and France bringing to an end the siege by English troops of French forces occupying Leith.
5 July 1745: Charles Edwards Stuart sails from France for Scotland with two ships. The Elisabeth, carrying his military supplies and gold, is badly damaged in an encounter with a Royal Navy ship and has to turn back.
5 July 1847: The last mail coach, now redundant because of the advance of the railways, runs between London and Edinburgh.
6 July 1988: The North Sea oil rig, Piper Alpha, explodes, killing 167 men.
7 July 1297: An "official" or nobles' rebellion surrenders to the English at Irvine.
7 July 1307: King Edward I of England dies.
7 July 1548: The Treaty of Haddington is agreed between Scotland and France. Under its terms Mary, Queen of Scots is to marry Dauphin Francis in return for French assistance in ending the siege of Haddington.
7 July 1930: The death of the author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes.
8 July 1296: John Balliol resigns his kingdom to Edward I at Montrose. Edward takes the Stone of Scone back to London after the Scottish nobility have signed their loyalty to him. He appoints the Earl of Surrey as Governor of Scotland.
9 July 1867: Scotland's first football club, Queen's Park, is formed.
10 July 1469: James III, now 18, marries 13 year old Margret of Denmark, Princess of Norway and Denmark and assumes his full powers over Scotland. Part of her dowry is mortgaged against Orkney and Shetland.
10 July 1559: Francis, the husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, becomes King Francis II of France.
11 July 1902: Arthur Balfour becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
12 July 1698: The ships of the first Darien expedition sail from Leith with 1,200 settlers, bound for Panama.
12 July 1834: The death in Hawaii of David Douglas, the botanist who gave his name to the Douglas Fir.
13 July 1249: Alexander III is crowned King of Scotland at the age of 8.
13 July 1807: Henry Benedict Stuart dies in Rome. He is the fourth and final Jacobite to publicly lay claim to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.
16 July 1588: The death of Lady Agnes Keith who had been born into Scottish nobility and briefly became one of the most powerful women in the country.
16 July 1832: A storm catches the Shetland fishing fleet at sea and sinks 31 boats or "sixerns" with the loss of 105 lives.
17 July 1537: Janet, Countess of Glamis, and the sister in law of James V's exiled stepfather, the Earl of Angus, is tried on charges including trying to poison the King. She is burned at the stake outside Edinburgh Castle and her - extremely rich - estate is forfeited to James V.
17 July 1695: The Bank of Scotland is established in Edinburgh.
17 July 1790: The death of Adam Smith, the hugely influential political economist and moral philosopher.
18 July 1792: The death of John Paul Jones, father of the US Navy.
19 July 1654: A Royalist uprising in the Highlands led by the Earl of Glencairn and Major-General John Middleton disintegrates after meeting troops under General Monck at the Battle of Dalnaspidal near Loch Garry.
19 July 1896: The birth of the author A.J. Cronin, one of the most commercially successful Scottish writers of the 20th Century.
20 July 1793: Sir Alexander Mackenzie completes the first recorded crossing of North America north of Mexico to reach an inlet of the Pacific Ocean in Canada.
20 July 1912: Andrew Lang, the prolific Scottish historian, translator, journalist, poet, writer, teacher, biographer and anthropologist dies.
22 July 1298: William Wallace is badly defeated by Edward I at the Battle of Falkirk, a loss later, possibly unfairly, blamed on the desertion of the Scottish cavalry. Wallace subsequently resigns as Guardian and drops out of sight.
22 July 1680: The radical Presbyterian Richard Cameron attempts to lead an uprising against the King. He is killed by government troops at the Battle of Airds Moss in Ayrshire.
23 July 1637: A riot erupts in St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh, when when a street-seller called Jenny Geddes thows a stool at the Dean after he tries to use the Book of Common Prayer as newly imposed by King Charles I for use throughout his United Kingdom.
23 July 1946: The death of James Maxton, the socialist politician who became Chairman of the Independent Labour Party.
24 July 1411: At the Battle of Harlaw, 20 miles north-west of Aberdeen, the highland army of Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles meets the lowland army of Alexander, Earl of Mar, son of the Wolf of Badenoch. At stake is the Earldom of Ross and control of northern Scotland. After an inconclusive day of heavy fighting and heavy casualties, Donald retires to Inverness and Alexander to Aberdeen.
24 July 1567: Lords Ruthven and Lindsay visit Mary Queen of Scots and insist she abdicates immediately or be killed. She abdicates.
27 July 1689: The leader of Jacobite dissent in Scotland is Viscount Dundee who gathers an army of Highlanders and a few Irish at Blair Castle. As General Mackay moves a government army of lowland troops north from Dunkeld the two sides meet at the Battle of Killiecrankie. The outcome is a victory for the Jacobites, but at a high cost including the death of Viscount Dundee, or "Bonnie Dundee" as he is remembered.
27 July 1681: The Reverend Donald Cargill, who in October 1680 had excommunicated the entire government, is beheaded in Edinburgh.
27 July 1790: The Forth and Clyde Canal is opened to use.
28 July 1909: Harold and Frank Barnwell make Scotland's first heavier than air flight at Causewayhead.
28 July 1934: The German rocket scientist Gerhard Zucker launches a 14kg solid fuel rocket carrying mail from Huisinis on Harris towards its intended destination on the island of Scarp. It explodes on launch.
28 July 1945: The death in London of Margot Asquith, Countess of Oxford & Asquith, who is remembered as a writer, socialite and wit, and wife of Prime Minister Herbert Asquith.
29 July 1567: One year old Charles James is crowned King James VI of Scotland in a Protestant ceremony in the Church of the Holy Rude, close to Stirling Castle. John Knox preaches a sermon. It is exactly two years since Mary married Darnley.
30 July 1938: The children's comic "The Beano" is first published.
31 July 1547: French naval forces in support of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots bombard St Andrews Castle and capture the Protestant rebels. These include John Knox, who is sent to become a galley-slave.
31 July 1786: Robert Burns publishes Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect. This collection of verse contains many poems that will later be regarded as classics.