1 December 1787: Scotland's first lighthouse lights up at Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh. It is built by Thomas Smith and Robert Stevenson.
3 December 1845: The death in Venezuela of Gregor MacGregor, Prince of the (fictitious) Principality of Poyais, a conman who persuaded many British and, later, French to invest in, and in many case emigrate to, a non-existent colony called Poyais on the Bay of Honduras in central America.
3 December 1894: The death in Samoa of renowned poet, and author of fiction and travel books, Robert Louis Stevenson.
4 December 1423: The Treaty of London provides for the release of King James I after eighteen years as a prisoner of the English.
4 December 1937: The first appearance in print of Desperate Dan, a popular cowboy character in the British comic magazine The Dandy.
5 December 1560: King Francis II of France, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, dies of an infected ear and is succeeded by his brother, Charles IX of France.
5 December 1905: Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman becomes First Lord of the Treasury, five days later being the first UK politician ever to officially adopt the title "Prime Minister".
6 December 1745: In the absence of the promised French invasion of England and in the light of very limited support from English Jacobites, Charles Edward Stuart withdraws from Derby.
6 December 1799: The death of Joseph Black, the eminent Scottish physicist, chemist and medical doctor.
7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.
7 December 1566: Mary Queen of Scots leaves Craigmillar Castle after a group of her advisers agree the Craigmillar Bond, an arrangement for the disposal of Lord Darnley, who by now everyone including Mary knows to be thoroughly unsuitable as a husband. Those involved include The Earls of Argyll, Huntly, and Bothwell, Sir James Balfour, and William Maitland of Lethington.
8 December 1174: King William I, William the Lion, signs the Treaty of Falaise to secure his release from English captivity. This gives control of key Scottish castles to the English and acknowledges Henry II of England as his feudal superior.
8 December 1959: The lifeboat RNLB Mona, based at Broughty Ferry, capsizes in a storm in St Andrews Bay with the loss of all eight crew.
9 December 1165: Malcolm IV dies, aged 24 and unmarried, and is succeeded by his younger brother William I or William the Lion after his symbol, a red lion rampant on a yellow field that becomes the basis of one of Scotland's two flags.
9 December 1688: Serious rioting in Edinburgh spreads across Scotland.
10 December 1747: The death of Duncan Forbes, Lord Culloden, an important figure in the legal establishment of Scotland for a number of decades and a staunch opponent of the Jacobites in two uprisings.
10 December 1912 The birth in Siberia of of Vera Eriksen, a German spy (and a British double-agent) who landed in Scotland in September 1940.
10 December 1928: The death in London of Charles Rennie Mackintosh the hugely influential architect and design icon.
10 December 1936: King Edward VIII abdicates and is succeeded by his brother Albert, who becomes King George VI.
11 December 1997: The Royal Yacht Britannia is decommissioned at Portsmouth Naval Base after a 44-yareer service life in which she carried the Queen and the Royal Family on 968 official voyages in almost every part of the globe.
14 December 1896: The Glasgow District Underground opens for service.
16 December 1653: Oliver Cromwell is sworn in as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
16 December 1911: Businessman Thomas Blake Glover, one of the founding fathers of modern Japan, dies in Tokyo.
18 December 1661: The ship Elizabeth of Burntisland sinks off the coast of north-east England, taking with it many of Scotland's most important historical records, en route back to Scotland after their earlier removal to London by Oliver Cromwell.
20 December 1538: Archbishop David Beaton is appointed a Cardinal by Pope Paul III.
20 December 1745: The Jacobite army, heading north after reaching Derby, retreats into Scotland.
21 December 1988: Pan Am flight 103 en route from London to New York is destroyed over Lockerbie, killing all 243 passengers and 16 crew on board, and 11 people on the ground.
21 December 2004 : Tolls are lifted on the Skye Bridge: crossing is now free.
22 December 1797: Explorer Mungo Park returned to Scotland from west Africa, long after he had been given up for dead.
23 December 1761: The death of Alastair Ruadh MacDonnell, the government spy in the Jacobite camp known as "Pickle".
24 December 1856: The death of geologist and writer, Hugh Miller.
24 December 1914: The death of John Muir, noted naturalist, explorer, writer, and geologist.
25 December 1724: General George Wade is appointed Chief of His Majesty's forces, castles, forts and barracks in North Britain. He begins the construction of hundreds of miles of good "military" roads and stone bridges designed to allow government troops to counter future uprisings with greater ease.
25 December 1978: The death in Sussex of Victoria Drummond, the first woman to serve as a chief engineer in the Merchant Navy and first woman member of Institute of Marine Engineers.
26 December 1251: Ten year-old King Alexander III marries Henry III of England's eldest daughter, Princess Margaret in York.
26 December 1780: The birth in Jedburgh of Mary Somerville, a writer with a deep understanding of many of the newly emerging fields in science, mathematics and astronomy, and the world's first "scientist".
26 and 27 December 1789: William Symington operates a paddle steamer on the Forth and Clyde Canal.
27 December 1904: The first performance takes place in London of J.M. Barrie's classic play Peter Pan.
28 December 1879: The Tay Railway Bridge, designed by Thomas Bouch, collapses while being crossed by a train with the loss of 75 lives.
29 December 1807: Orcadian Isobel Gunn gives birth to a son while posing as a man and working for The Hudson's Bay Company in Canada.
30 December 1899: The Albion Motor Car Company Ltd, later known as Albion Motors, is founded in Glasgow.
30 December 1915: The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Natal explodes in the Cromarty Firth with the loss of at least 390 lives.
31 December: Hogmanay is celebrated in Scotland.
31 December 1929: A fire in the Glen Cinema in Paisley causes the deaths of 71 children, and injures many more.