24 September 1850: St Mary's Dalmahoy is consecrated at a service led by the Bishop of Edinburgh.
19 September 1851: The birth in Lancashire of William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme, an English industrialist, philanthropist and colonialist who, amongst many other ventures, for a time owned Lewis and Harris and had a profound and lasting influence on the island.
1852: John Brown Shipbuilding and Engineering is formed in Glasgow. The company moves to Clydebank in 1872.
12 March 1852: The last recorded salmon is caught in Glasgow's River Kelvin as industrial pollution rises. The species does not return to the river until February 1999.
24 May 1852: The birth in London of Robert Cunninghame Graham, the socialist politician who became the first president of the Scottish National Party.
2 March 1854: The death in Saint Petersburg of Sir James Wylie, the Scottish doctor who rose to become the Russian imperial court surgeon and served three tsars.
20 September 1854: Arctic explorer Dr John Rae sails from Canada for England with news of the fate of the missing expedition of Sir John Franklin.
15 August 1856: The birth of Keir Hardie, who would rise from extremely humble origins to become one of Britain's most well regarded politicians, and the first leader of the Labour Party.
24 December 1856: The death of geologist and writer, Hugh Miller.
10 June 1858: The death in London of Robert Brown, the botanist best known for his work in Australia, and one of the first to observe the phenomenon since called Brownian motion.
14 October 1859: The new water supply to Glasgow from Loch Katrine is opened.
15 September 1860: Marischal College and King's College in Aberdeen merge to form a single University of Aberdeen.
31 October 1860: The death in London of Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, who achieved fame as one of the most daring and successful naval captains of the Napoleonic Wars, and later led the navies of Chile, Brazil and Greece in independence struggles.
9 January 1861: The death in London of Macgregor Laird, the Scottish merchant who did much to open up the River Niger in Africa as a trade route.
26 January 1861: The One O'Clock Gun is fired at Edinburgh Castle for the first time.
13 October 1862: 15 people are killed when two trains collided head on in a cutting a mile and a half north east of Winchburgh.
29 April 1863: Mary Livingstone, wife of explorer David Livingstone, dies in Africa of dysentery while accompanying her husband's Zambezi Expedition.
14 August 1863: The death of Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde the soldier remembered particularly for his service in the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny.
16 August 1864: The birth in India of Elsie Inglis, who would make her name as a pioneering surgeon and as a suffragette, and do much to improve medical care for women.
9 July 1867: Scotland's first football club, Queen's Park, is formed.
10 February 1868: The death of Sir David Brewster, FRS, the renowned scientist who studied optics and invented the kaleidoscope.
22 March 1868: The last fully publicly hanging in Scotland takes place in Perth, of Joseph Bell.
22 April 1869: The death of Patrick Bell, the Church of Scotland minister best remembered as the inventor of the reaping machine, the partial forerunner to today's combine harvester.
22 November 1869: The clipper "Cutty Sark" is launched at Dumbarton on the River Clyde.
6 May 1870: The death of Sir James Young Simpson, the first man ever to be knighted for his services to medicine, who is principally remembered for introducing anaesthesia to childbirth.
17 May 1870: The death of David Octavius Hill, the artist who went on to help pioneer many aspects of photography in Scotland.
18 November 1870: The first seven female undergraduates studying medicine at the University of Edinburgh are prevented from sitting an exam by the "Surgeons' Hall Riot".
22 October 1871: The death in London of the eminent geologist Sir Roderick Murchison.
1872: The Education Act provides for schooling of all children aged between 5 and 13.
1 June 1872: The death in New York of James Gordon Bennett, the founder, publisher and editor of the New York Herald.
29 November 1872: The scientist, mathematician and writer, Mary Somerville dies in Italy.
30 November 1872: The world's first football international is held between Scotland and England, ending in a goalless draw.
13 March 1873: The Scottish Football Association is formed, making it the second oldest national football association in the world.
1 May 1873: The death in in present-day Zambia of David Livingstone, one of the most famous of the European missionaries and explorers.
11 November 1874: The birth in Ireland of Dame Anne Louise McIlroy, the pioneering woman doctor who helped establish the Scottish Women's Hospitals for Foreign Service during the First World War.
26 August 1875: The birth in Perth of John Buchan, the lawyer and politician who became Governor General of Canada, and is most widely remembered as a prolific author of a wide range of fiction and non-fiction books,
14 February 1876: Alexander Graham Bell's lawyers file a patent application for the telephone with the US Patent Office.
7 March 1876: Scottish-born inventor Alexander Graham Bell is granted a patent for the telephone by the US Patent Office.
7 May 1876 : The death of David Bryce, the leading Scottish architect in the Victorian era.
23 June 1876: The death of Robert Napier, the engineer often remembered as "The Father of Clyde Shipbuilding."
5 August 1876: The missionary Mary Slessor sets sail for Nigeria.
22 October 1877: An explosion in the Blantyre Colliery kills 207 miners in Scotland's worst mining disaster.
26 January 1878: The death of Kirkpatrick Macmillan, the blacksmith credited by many as the inventor of the rear-wheel driven bicycle.
3 February 1878: The birth in 10 Downing Street in London of Dame Flora MacLeod the 28th Chief of Clan MacLeod.
6 August 1879: The death in Munich of Johann von Lamont, the eminent Scottish-born astronomer.
5 November 1879: The death of James Clerk Maxwell, one of greatest scientists of any era.
28 December 1879: The Tay Railway Bridge, designed by Thomas Bouch, collapses while being crossed by a train with the loss of 75 lives.
5 February 1881: The death of essayist, satirist, and historian, Thomas Carlyle.
14 October 1881: 189 fishermen, including 129 from Eyemouth are killed when 20 boats are lost in a storm.
2 November 1881: The birth in Kirkintilloch of Tom Johnston, who would serve as Secretary of State for Scotland from 1941 to 1945 and is best remembered for his role in driving ahead a number of large hydro-electricity schemes across the Highlands.
10 March 1882: The death of Professor Sir Charles Wyville Thomson, the eminent oceanographer who served as chief scientist on the 3½ year 70,000 mile expedition by HMS Challenger, the ship that would have a Space Shuttle named after it.
17 April 1882: The "Battle of the Braes" takes place on the Isle of Skye over the crofters' refusal to pay their rents until the landowner returns traditional grazing rights. Attempts to serve eviction notices by 50 police are met with violent resistance.
17 January 1883: The author if "Whisky Galore", Compton Mackenzie, is born in Hartlepool in North East England.
3 July 1883: The steamer "Daphne" sinks with the loss of 124 lives on the Clyde during its maiden voyage.
1 July 1884 : Allan Pinkerton, the founder of the Pinkerton Detective Agency and the US Secret Service, dies in Chicago.
1885: The Scottish Office is created as part of the Whitehall government, and with it the post of Secretary of State for Scotland.
12 September 1885: A professional football match held in Arbroath results in a scoreline of Arbroath, 36: Bon Accord (an Aberdeen club), 0. For over a century this stood as the largest margin of victory in professional football.
25 June 1886: The Crofters Holding Act, sometimes called the "Magna Carta of Gaeldom", is passed, protecting the tenure of crofters.
28 May 1887: 73 miners are killed in a firedamp explosion at Udston Colliery near Hamilton. It is said to be Scotland's second worst coal mining disaster.
20 June 1887: The rebuilt Tay Rail Bridge opens.
1888: The Scottish Liberal Association votes for home rule for Scotland.
6 November 1887: Celtic Football Club is formally constituted at a meeting in St. Mary's church hall in East Rose Street in Glasgow.
1888: The Scottish Labour Party is formed by Keir Hardie.
21 January 1890: Two 1,000ft long test trains, each comprising a locomotive and 50 wagons, and each weighing 900 tons, roll onto the newly-built Forth Bridge side by side from the south.
4 March 1890: The Forth Rail Bridge is officially opened by the Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII, a fortnight after the first complete end-to-end crossing by a train.
7 May 1890: The death in Kent of James Nasmyth, the inventor and engineer remembered mostly for his development of the steam hammer.
6 June 1891: The death in Ottowa of Sir John A. Macdonald, the dominant figure of Canadian Confederation who became the first Prime Minister of Canada.
13 April 1892: The birth in Brechin of Sir Robert Watson-Watt, generally regarded to be the "inventor of radar". While not the first to consider the possibilities in this area, he was the first to produce a workable system that turned the theory into a weapon critical to winning World War Two.
17 April 1892: The death in Toronto of Scottish-born Alexander Mackenzie, the second Prime minister of Canada.
7 August 1894: The first train arrives in Fort William on the newly opened West Highland Line.
3 December 1894: The death in Samoa of renowned poet, and author of fiction and travel books, Robert Louis Stevenson.
17 April 1895: The first cremation in Scotland takes place, at the Western Necropolis in Glasgow.
19 July 1896: The birth of the author A.J. Cronin, one of the most commercially successful Scottish writers of the 20th Century.
24 October 1896: St Michael's Parish Church, Linlithgow, is rededicated after a major renovation.
14 December 1896: The Glasgow District Underground opens for service.
25 March 1897: The Scottish Trades Union Congress is formed.
8 September 1897: The Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour in the Braes of Glenlivet is officially opened by the Archbishop of St Andrews & Edinburgh and the Bishop of Aberdeen.
25 November 1897: The birth in Callander of Helen Duncan, the medium and spiritualist best remembered as the last person to be jailed under the Witchcraft Act of 1735, a prosecution that contributed to the Act's repeal.
5 January 1899: The first electric-powered tram in Glasgow begins the replacement of the horse-drawn service.
30 December 1899: The Albion Motor Car Company Ltd, later known as Albion Motors, is founded in Glasgow.