9 October 1900: The death of John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, the scholar, historian, archaeologist, romantic, mystic, and one of the greatest patrons of the arts in the Victorian era.
22 January 1901: Queen Victoria dies of a cerebral hemorrhage while staying at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.
2 May 1901: The Glasgow International Exhibition opens in Kelvingrove Park.
4 July 1901: The death of Peter Guthrie Tait, a mathematical physicist best known for his joint-authorship of a textbook which defined the science of physics.
26 August 1901: Eight coal miners and rescuers are killed in the Donibristle mining disaster in Fife when the mine is overwhelmed by an inflow of soft peat.
5 April 1902: The collapse of a stand during a Scotland vs England football match at Ibrox Park in Glasgow kills 25 supporters and injures 517 more.
11 July 1902: Arthur Balfour becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
29 September 1902: The death of William Topaz McGonagall, widely celebrated as the worst poet ever to have written in the English language.
27 December 1904: The first perfromance takes place in London of J.M. Barrie's classic play Peter Pan.
1904-1913: Some 600,000 Scots, 13% of the population, emigrate for North America, the Commonwealth and elsewhere in the UK, taking with them a disproportionate share of Scotland's skills and education. Between 1921-1931 a further 400,000 Scots leave the country.
18 September 1905: The death in England of George MacDonald, the church minister who became an early author of fantasy fiction.
5 December 1905: Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman becomes First Lord of the Treasury, five days later being the first UK politician ever to officially adopt the title "Prime Minister".
1907: The British Aluminium Company begins production of aluminium at Kinlochleven.
13 August 1907: The birth in India of Sir Basil Spence, the architect who produced many buildings in the UK and beyond in the Modernist/Brutalist style.
17 December 1907: The death of William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (better known simply as Lord Kelvin), the renowned physicist and engineer.
26 January 1908: The 1st Glasgow Scout Group becomes the first scout troop to be officially registered.
24 May 1908: The death of Old Tom Morris, the father of modern golf.
28 July 1909: Harold and Frank Barnwell make Scotland's first heavier than air flight at Causewayhead.
3 April 1910: The death in Australia of Catherine Helen Spence the leading author, teacher, journalist, and campaigner for women's rights.
21 September 1910: Captain Bertram Dickson flies the world's first ever military sortie in an aeroplane, observing military manoeuvres on Salisbury Plain.
3 October 1910: Captain Bertram Dickson is seriously injured in the world's first ever mid-air collision, which takes place over Milan.
1911: The population of Scotland reaches 4,761,000.
11 March 1911: The birth of Sir Fitzroy Maclean, the diplomat, soldier, adventurer, writer and politician who, according to some accounts, becomes a partial model for the fictional character of James Bond.
26 October 1911: The birth on the island of Raasay of Sorley MacLean. He would become one of the most important Scottish poets of the 20th Century and is seen by many as the father of the renaissance of the Gaelic language.
16 December 1911: Businessman Thomas Blake Glover, one of the founding fathers of modern Japan, dies in Tokyo.
20 July 1912: Andrew Lang, the prolific Scottish historian, translator, journalist, poet, writer, teacher, biographer and anthropologist dies.
10 December 1912 The birth in Siberia of of Vera Eriksen, a German spy (and a British double-agent) who landed in Scotland in September 1940.
18 March 1913: The birth in Liverpool of W.H. Murray, one of the greats of Scottish mountaineering, and a man who did as much as or more than anyone else to popularise Scotland as a walking and climbing destination to the generations that followed World War II.
4 July 1913: The birth in Tokyo of Oswald Wynd, the novelist who sometimes wrote under the pseudonym "Gavin Black".
23 August 1913: Work begins on the rebuilding of Eilean Donan Castle. It will take until 1932 to complete.
2 September 1913: The birth in the remote East Ayrshire mining village of Glenbuck of Bill Shankly, the highly respected football manager best known for leading Liverpool FC to a string of successes in the 1960s and 1970s.
28 April 1914: Hugh Dowding is awarded his Royal Flying Corps "wings". He is best remembered as the commander of RAF Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain.
4 August 1914: Britain declares war on Germany.
15 October 1914 : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Hawke is sunk by a German U-boat off Aberdeen with the loss of 524 members of her crew.
24 December 1914: The death of John Muir, noted naturalist, explorer, writer, and geologist.
13 January 1915: The missionary Mary Slessor dies in Calabar in south eastern Nigeria.
22 May 1915: 226 people are killed and 246 more are injured in a rail crash at Quintinshill, near Gretna Green.
30 August 1915: The Royal Research Ship Discovery reaches the Falkland Islands on a mission to rescue polar explorer Ernest Shackleton, to find he has already been rescued.
26 September 1915 : The death of Keir Hardie, first leader of the Labour Party.
30 December 1915: The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Natal explodes in the Cromarty Firth with the loss of 405 lives.
5 June 1916: The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Hampshire strikes a mine and sinks off Orkney with the loss of 643 crew and 7 passengers. Amongst those killed is Field Marshal Lord Kitchener, en route to Russia.
30 June 1917: John Maclean, the revolutionary socialist politician who played an important part in the Red Clydeside movement, is released from prison following a public campaign.
26 November 1917 : The death of pioneering surgeon and suffragette, Elsie Inglis.
31 January 1918: The "Battle of May Island" takes place. This is the name given to a series of accidents between Royal Navy ships and submarines in the Firth of Forth that cost 104 men their lives.
6 October 1918: H.M.S. Otranto sinks in Machir Bay off north western Islay after a collision in fog with another troop ship, HMS Kashmir. 431 lives are lost: 80 members of the British crew and 351 US servicemen.
6 February 1918: The Representation of the People Act 1918 is given Royal Assent. This extends the right to vote to almost all men aged 21 or over, and to women aged 30 or over.
11 November 1918: The First World War comes to an end. During the war 140,000 Scots are killed.
21 November 1918: The German High Seas Fleet surrenders to the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet in the Firth of Forth.
1 January 1919: The troop ship Iolaire sinks in the entrance to Stornoway harbour, killing over 200 islanders returning from World War One.
21 January 1919: The birth in Leith of Captain Eric Brown, who goes on to become a renowned naval aviator and test pilot and who holds a record unlikely ever to be beaten for the largest number of different aircraft types flown by a single person, 487. In later life he was widely acknowledged by others as "the greatest pilot ever".
31 January 1919: There are riots in Glasgow against rent levels and in favour of a shorter working week. The government responds by moving the army into the city.
21 June 1919: The captured German fleet is scuttled in Scapa Flow, Orkney.
11 August 1919: The death in Massachusetts of Andrew Carnegie, the Scots-born industrialist and philanthropist.
23 October 1921: The death in Dublin of John Boyd Dunlop, populariser of the pneumatic tyre.
23 October 1921: The death in Dublin of John Boyd Dunlop, who popularised the pneumatic inflatable rubber tyre and is chiefly remembered for founding the company that bears his name, Dunlop Tyres.
9 April 1922: The death in London of Sir Patrick Manson, the founding father of tropical medicine.
2 August 1922: The death in Canada of Alexander Graham Bell, the scientist, inventor, and innovator best known for developing and patenting the telephone.
1 January 1923: The Railways Act 1921 comes into force, leading to the creation of the London and North Eastern Railway and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.
6 March 1923: Scotland's first radio broadcast takes place when Glasgow radio station, 5SC, is launched by the BBC.
27 March 1923: The eminent chemist and physicist Sir James Dewar, inventor of the vacuum flask, dies in London.
30 November 1923: The death of John Maclean, the revolutionary socialist politician who played an important part in the Red Clydeside movement.
1924: Westminster debates a Home Rule Bill for Scotland, but it is not voted on.
22 January 1924: Ramsay MacDonald becomes Britain's first Labour Prime Minister, the first Prime Minister from a working-class background, and one of very few without a university education.
21 March 1925: Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh becomes the home of Scottish rugby when 70,000 spectators watch Scotland beat England to win their first Five Nations Championship Grand Slam.
26 January 1926 : John Logie Baird gives the first public demonstration of the television transmission of the picture of a human face to members of the Royal Institution and a reporter from The Times in his lab at 22 Frith Street, Soho.
1928: The National Party for Scotland is founded.
1928: All women over 21 are given the vote: married women over 30 were given it in 1918.
28 January 1928 : The death of Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, British commander in the First World War.
28 April 1928: The probably death in New York of Madeleine Smith, the daughter of a prosperous Glasgow family who in 1857 became the defendant in a notorious murder trial.
28 September 1928: Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
10 December 1928: The death in London of Charles Rennie Mackintosh the hugely influential architect and design icon.
5 March 1929: The death of David Dunbar Buick, the founder of the Buick Motor Company.
5 June 1929: Ramsay MacDonald becomes Prime Minister for the second time.
31 December 1929: A fire in the Glen Cinema in Paisley causes the deaths of 71 children, and injures many more.
1930: Unemployment in Scotland reaches 25% during the depression years.
11 June 1930: The liner RMS Empress of Britain is launched at John Brown's shipyard on the Clyde by HRH Prince of Wales.
7 July 1930: The death of the author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes.
21 August 1930: Princess Margaret, daughter of the future King George VI, is born at Glamis Castle. She is the first royal princess to be born in Scotland for three centuries.
29 August 1930: The remote Island of St Kilda, lying in the Atlantic to the west of the Western Isles, is evacuated.
24 September 1930: The death in New Zealand of Harry McNish, the carpenter on Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914 to 1917.
2 October 1931: The death of Sir Thomas Lipton, who succeeded in establishing a chain of grocery stores across Great Britain; who gave his name to Lipton teas; and who repeatedly (and unsuccessfully) challenged for yachting's America's Cup.
17 April 1932: The death in France of Sir Patrick Geddes, the noted biologist and botanist, and pioneer in the field of town planning.
2 May 1933: The Inverness Courier publishes an article about a sighting of "a beast" in Loch Ness by unnamed locals on 14 April. The modern era of the Loch Ness Monster is born.
7 April 1934: The Scottish National Party is founded as the result of a merger between the National Party of Scotland and the Scottish Party.
20 April 1934: The first public meeting of the Scottish National Party is held at the Central Hall in Tollcross in Edinburgh.
28 July 1934: The German rocket scientist Gerhard Zucker launches a 14kg solid fuel rocket carrying mail from Huisinis on Harris towards its intended destination on the island of Scarp. It explodes on launch.
26 September 1934: The liner "Queen Mary" is launched at the John Brown shipyard on the River Clyde, before going on to break transatlantic speed records following her maiden voyage to New York on 27 May 1936.
3 November 1934: The death of Sir Robert McAlpine, 1st Baronet, the builder who innovations gained him the nickname of "Concrete Bob" and who established the construction company Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd.
7 February 1935: Lewis Grassic Gibbon, the author of the classic Scottish novel, Sunset Song dies, aged just 34.
26 February 1935: Radar pioneer Robert Watson-Watt successfully demonstrates the detection of radio signals being reflected off a circling RAF bomber in what became known as the Daventry Experiment.
10 August 1935: The Perth Museum and Art Gallery's new building is opened by the Duke and Duchess of York, later to become King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
20 January 1936: King George V dies. He is succeeded by King Edward VIII, who abdicates 325 days later in order to marry Mrs Simpson.
8 March 1936: The comic strip Oor Wullie is published for the first time in the weekly Scottish newspaper The Sunday Post.
20 March 1936: The death in Buenos Aires of Robert Cunninghame Graham, the socialist politician who became the first president of the Scottish National Party.
7 August 1936: Air services begin from Barra Airport, the only beach airport anywhere in the world to be used for scheduled airline services.
10 December 1936: King Edward VIII abdicates and is succeeded by his brother Albert, who becomes King George VI.
17 April 1937: 149,415 fans attend the Scotland vs England football match at Hampden Park, Glasgow: a world record football crowd at the time and an enduring European record for an international match.
19 June 1937: The death of J.M. Barrie, the novelist and dramatist best known for inventing the character of Peter Pan.
9 November 1937: The death of Ramsay MacDonald, three times Prime Minister of Great Britain.
4 December 1937: The first appearance in print of Desperate Dan, a popular cowboy character in the British comic magazine The Dandy.
May-December 1938: The Empire Exhibition takes place in Glasgow's Bellahouston Park. A team of architects led by Thomas S. Tait oversee the building of the largest collection of modern architecture in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. Over 12 million people visit the exhibition.
5 May 1938: King George VI officially opens the Empire Exhibition in Bellahouston Park in Glasgow.
30 July 1938: The children's comic "The Beano" is first published.
2 August 1938: The death of Captain Frank Barnwell, the aviation pioneer who, with his brother Harold, was responsible for the first powered flight in Scotland, and who later became a noted aircraft engineer with the Bristol Aeroplane Company.
27 September 1938: The liner "Queen Elizabeth", the largest passenger ship so far built, is launched at John Brown's on the Clyde.
3 September 1939: The Second World War is declared.
4 September 1939: The Scottish Office establishes its Headquarters in Edinburgh at St Andrews House.
14 October 1939: HMS Royal Oak is sunk by a German submarine in Scapa Flow.
16 October 1939: The first German aircraft to be shot down over Britain in WWII is attacked by RAF fighters over the River Forth.
11 February 1940: John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, author and Governor General of Canada, dies.
30 April 1940: The French destroyer Maillé Brézé suffers an accidental explosion and sinks in the River Clyde off Greenock with the loss of 25 of her crew.
1 November 1940 The death in combat of Squadron Leader Archie McKellar, a leading fighter ace during the Battle of Britain.
8 February 1941: Tom Johnston is appointed Secretary of State for Scotland.
13-14 March 1941: Over two nights Clydeside is bombed by the Luftwaffe and over 500 civilians are killed and 48,000 made homeless.
10 May 1941: Deputy German Führer, Rudolph Hess parachutes into Scotland, apparently intending to meet the 14th Duke of Hamilton.
1942: Colonel David Stirling's 1st SAS Regiment undertake a series of raids behind enemy lines in North Africa, destroying over 250 enemy aircraft on the ground.
27 March 1943: The Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Dasher explodes and sinks off the Isle of Arran with the loss of 379 lives.
16 August 1944: John Logie Baird gives the world's first demonstration of a fully electronic colour television display using a 600 line system.
21 February 1945: The missionary and athlete Eric Liddell dies in a Japanese internment camp in China.
8 May 1945: V-E, or Victory in Europe day marks the end of the war in Europe.
15 June 1945: The RMS Queen Mary leaves Gourock on the River Clyde, taking 15,000 US troops home.
28 July 1945: The death in London of Margot Asquith, Countess of Oxford & Asquith, who is remembered as a writer, socialite and wit, and wife of Prime Minister Herbert Asquith.
14 June 1946: John Logie Baird, one of the fathers of television, dies at his home in Bexhill-on-Sea.
23 July 1946: The death of James Maxton, the socialist politician who became Chairman of the Independent Labour Party.
2 October 1946: The paddle steamer PS Waverley is launched at A. & J. Inglis's shipyard in Glasgow.
1947: The first Edinburgh Festival is held.
4 May 1949: A fire at Grafton's department store in Argyle Street in Glasgow kills thirteen young women.
8 September 1948: The first service is held in the (still roofless) abbey church at Pluscarden Abbey.
October 1949: The National Covenant for Home Rule is launched by John MacCormick.