2 October 1263: King Håkon's fleet is damaged by a storm on the night of 30 September and this leads to the inconclusive skirmishes along the beach now known as the Battle of Largs. Håkon takes his battered fleet back to Orkney and later dies there. The full story can be read in The Norwegian Account of Haco's Expedition Against Scotland; 1263, first published in translation in 1782.
2 October 1931: The death of Sir Thomas Lipton, who succeeded in establishing a chain of grocery stores across Great Britain; who gave his name to Lipton teas; and who repeatedly (and unsuccessfully) challenged for yachting's America's Cup.
2 October 1946: The paddle steamer PS Waverley is launched at A. & J. Inglis's shipyard in Glasgow.
3 October 1594: The Battle of Glenlivet is fought between the victorious Catholic forces of George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly and the Protestant forces of Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll.
3 October 1706: The Scottish Parliament begins its debate on the Treaty of Union between Scotland and England.
3 October 1910: Captain Bertram Dickson is seriously injured in the world's first ever mid-air collision, which takes place over Milan.
4 October 1694: The birth at Huntingtower Castle near Perth of Lord George Murray, a professional soldier and Jacobite who was one of Bonnie Prince Charlie's commanders during the ill-fated 1745 uprising.
4 October 1821: The death of John Rennie, one of the greatest engineers of his age who designed many bridges, canals, and docks.
5 October 1849: The Ardnamurchan Lighthouse is illuminated for the first time.
6 October 1918: H.M.S. Otranto sinks in Machir Bay off north western Islay after a collision in fog with another troop ship, HMS Kashmir. 431 lives are lost: 80 members of the British crew and 351 US servicemen.
9 October 1900: The death of John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, the scholar, historian, archaeologist, romantic, mystic, and one of the greatest patrons of the arts in the Victorian era.
9 October 2004: The Queen opens the new Scottish Parliament Building.
10 October 1797: The birth in Edinburgh of Thomas Drummond, an engineer and the inventor of the Drummond Light who worked for the Ordnance Survey of Ireland before becoming a senior administrator in Ireland.
10 October 1974: By the second General Election of the year, Harold Wilson's Labour Party has accepted the need for devolution. The Scottish Nationalists take 30% of the vote and 11 parliamentary seats.
10 October 1985: The death in London of Doris Reynolds, a geologist who spent much of her career in Scotland.
11 October 1797: Ships of the Royal Navy, commanded by Admiral Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan, intercept a Dutch fleet off the village of Camperdown in the Netherlands and destroy it.
11 October 2000: Donald Dewar, Scotland's first First Minister, dies in office. He is succeeded as First Minister in the Scottish Executive by Henry McLeish.
Friday, 13 October 1307: King Philip IV rounds up the Knights Templar in France as part of his campaign to gain control of the Order's vast wealth. In 1312 he persuades Pope Clement V to dissolve the Order, which in Scotland sees their assets, previously controlled from Temple, transferred to the Knights Hospitaller of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and administered from Torphichen Preceptory.
13 October 1862: 15 people are killed when two trains collided head on in a cutting a mile and a half north east of Winchburgh.
14 October 1859: The new water supply to Glasgow from Loch Katrine is opened.
14 October 1881: 189 fishermen, including 129 from Eyemouth are killed when 20 boats are lost in a storm.
14 October 1939: HMS Royal Oak is sunk by a German submarine in Scapa Flow.
15 October 1586: Mary Queen of Scots is tried for treason at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire.
15 October 1651: Charles II sails to France from Sussex after six weeks as a fugitive in England.
15 October 1914 : The Royal Navy cruiser HMS Hawke is sunk by a German U-boat off Aberdeen with the loss of 524 members of her crew.
15 October 1965: The Ben Cruachan hydro-electric scheme near Oban opens.
16 October 1430: The birth of the future King James II.
16 October 1939: The first German aircraft to be shot down over Britain in WWII is attacked by RAF fighters over the River Forth.
17 October 1995: The Skye Bridge is opened to traffic.
18 October 1801: Falling plasterwork during a service at the Laigh Kirk in Kilmarnock causes a stampede in which 29 people are killed.
19 October 1973: The boat belonging to internationally famous as country and western singer - and Shetland fisherman - Thomas Fraser runs aground and sinks.
20 October 2012: A twinning ceremony takes place in Glenelg, complete with a live link to NASA, to celebrate the twinning of the village with Glenelg on Mars.
21 October 1971: A gas explosion at the Clarkston Toll shopping centre south of Glasgow kills 22 people.
22 October 1871: The death in London of the eminent geologist Sir Roderick Murchison.
22 October 1877: An explosion in the Blantyre Colliery kills 207 miners in Scotland's worst mining disaster.
23 October 1295: A treaty is agreed between King John Balliol and King Philippe IV of France that marks the start of the long-standing "Auld Alliance".
23 October 1707: The first Parliament of Great Britain meets in London.
23 October 1921: The death in Dublin of John Boyd Dunlop, who popularised the pneumatic inflatable rubber tyre and is chiefly remembered for founding the company that bears his name, Dunlop Tyres.
24 October 1896: St Michael's Parish Church, Linlithgow, is rededicated after a major renovation.
25 October 1268: The death of John Balliol. He was a leading Anglo-Scottish noble, husband of Devorgilla, Lady of Galloway, father of one Scottish King, John Balliol, and the grandfather of another, Edward Balliol.
25 October 1714: The birth of James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, a lawyer, judge, and patron of the arts, who is primarily remembered as a pioneer of the science of comparative historical linguistics.
26 October 1845: The death of collector and writer of songs and poems, Carolina Oliphant, Baroness Nairne.
26 October 1911: The birth on the island of Raasay of Sorley MacLean. He would become one of the most important Scottish poets of the 20th Century and is seen by many as the father of the renaissance of the Gaelic language.
27 October 1327: Queen Elizabeth de Burgh, the second wife of Robert the Bruce, dies at Cullen Castle, and her "interiores partes" are buried in Cullen Old Kirk. The remainder of her body is taken south for burial at Dunfermline Abbey.
28 October 1562: Mary Queen of Scots and her half-brother James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, defeat George, the 4th Earl of Huntly at the Battle of Corrichie, near Aberdeen, to curtail his ambition and assauge Protestant concerns in Scotland. She goes on to sack Huntly Castle.
30 October 1772: The arrival in South Africa of Francis Masson, the gardener who became Kew Gardens' first plant hunter.
31 October 1765: The Duke of Cumberland, known in the Highlands as "Butcher Cumberland" dies in London aged 44.
31 October 1860: The death in London of Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, who achieved fame as one of the most daring and successful naval captains of the Napoleonic Wars, and later led the navies of Chile, Brazil and Greece in independence struggles.