February 1744: A French fleet intending to invade southern England is caught by the Royal Navy then dispersed by a storm. On board the failed invasion fleet is Charles Edward Stuart, the "Young Pretender".
7 March 1744: The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers is founded in Leith, becoming the world's first golf club.
5 July 1745: Charles Edwards Stuart sails from France for Scotland with two ships. The Elisabeth, carrying his military supplies and gold, is badly damaged in an encounter with a Royal Navy ship and has to turn back.
4 September 1745: The Jacobite army takes Perth.
16 September 1745: The Jacobites take Edinburgh without a fight.
6 December 1745: In the absence of the promised French invasion of England and in the light of very limited support from English Jacobites, Charles withdraws from Derby.
20 December 1745: The Jacobite army retreats into Scotland.
8 January 1746: Stirling surrenders to the Jacobite forces.
17 January 1746: A large Jacobite army defeats government forces at the Battle of Falkirk Muir. Charles Edward Stuart, increasingly drunk since Derby, fails to take advantage. Amongst the casualties on the Government side is Sir Robert Munro.
1 February 1746: The Jacobites move north in the face of increasingly strong government forces under the Duke of Cumberland.
30 April 1746: Four days after Charles leaves Arisaig two French ships carrying supplies and funds arrive in an effort to help him.
9 April 1747: Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, becomes the last person to be executed by beheading in Britain for his part in the 1745 Jacobite uprising.
10 December 1747: The death of Duncan Forbes, Lord Culloden, an important figure in the legal establishment of Scotland for a number of decades and a staunch opponent of the Jacobites in two uprisings.
14 March 1748: The death of General George Wade, who served as Commander-in-Chief, North Britain, from 1724 to 1740 and whose name is forever attached to the network of military roads he built across the Highlands. He is also the only person identified by name in the United Kingdom's National Anthem.
18 November 1749: The death in London of Sir William Keith, who served as Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania and what is now Delaware.
14 May 1752: Colin Campbell, the Red Fox, is killed in the Appin Murder at Ballachulish.
14 May 1754: Golf is formalised at St Andrews with the foundation of the St Andrews Society of Golfers.
1755: A census by the Reverend Alexander Webster puts the population of Scotland at 1,265,380. England's population is five times larger.
1756: An Act of the Court of Session in Edinburgh establishes that tenants may easily be removed by the local sheriff. This is to have major implications in the Highlands in following years.
21 September 1756: The birth in Ayr of John Loudon McAdam, who would make his fortune in the United States before returning to Scotland and developing the most important improvements in roadbuilding techniques since the Romans.
1 November 1756: The Wanlockhead Miners' Library, the second oldest subscription library in Scotland (and Europe) is established 'for our mutual improvement' with 32 members.
9 August 1757: The birth of Thomas Telford, the man whose civil engineering achievements would transform Scotland.
1759: An iron works is established at Carron near Falkirk, producing cannons called Carronades.
25 January 1759: The birth of Robert Burns.
22 September 1759: The birth near Dundee of William Playfair, the engineer and political economist remembered primarily for his innovations in the presentation of quantitative information by means of graphs and charts.
1760: The Highland Clearances gain momentum. The pressure on highlanders through increased rents and more direct means to leave the land results in 20,000 emigrating by 1773, many for Canada and other colonies.
23 December 1761: The death of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, the government spy in the Jacobite camp known as "Pickle".
12 August 1762: The birth in London of George IV, who served as king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of Hanover, from 29 January 1820 until his death in 1830.
31 October 1765: The Duke of Cumberland, known in the Highlands as "Butcher Cumberland" dies in London aged 44.
17 November 1765: The birth in France of Étienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald, 1st Duc de Taranto, who became a Marshal of France during the Napoleonic Wars.
1 January 1766: James Francis Edward Stuart, also known as James VIII/III or "The Old Pretender", dies in exile in Rome.
1767: Work begins on the building of Edinburgh New Town.
7 April 1767: the birth in Torphichen in West Lothian of Henry Bell, who would make his name by building the the paddle steamer PS Comet and, in 1812, using it to run Europe's first commercially viable passenger steamboat service on the River Clyde.
1768-1771: The Encyclopedia Britannica is published in Edinburgh.
May 1769: Helen Gloag, later to be the Empress of Morocco, sets sail for America but en route is captured by Barbary pirates from Salé in Morocco.
14 November 1770: The explorer James Bruce reaches Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile, becoming, perhaps, the first European to reach that location.
14 May 1771: The birth in Wales of Robert Owen, the businessman and a social reformer credited with becoming one of the founders of socialism and of the cooperative movement, and best known for his association with New Lanark.
17 September 1771: The death in Italy of Scottish author, Tobias Smollett.
30 October 1772: The arrival in South Africa of Francis Masson, the gardener who became Kew Gardens' first plant hunter.
15 September 1773: The emigrant ship "Hector" arrives in Pictou Harbour on Nova Scotia carrying 189 Highlanders, most loaded two months earlier in Ullapool.
9 March 1776: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is published, becoming the best known work of economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
25 August 1776: The death of David Hume, generally regarded as the most important philosopher ever to write in English.
12 January 1777 : The death of Brigadier-General Hugh Mercer, the Scottish-born American revolutionary general.
23 September 1779: The Battle of Flamborough Head takes place off Yorkshire between ships of the American Continental Navy commanded by John Paul Jones and Royal Navy ships protecting a merchant convoy.
2 February 1782: The birth in Arbroath of James Chalmers, the inventor of the adhesive postal stamp.
1 January 1783: The constitution is drafted for the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, making it the oldest in Britain.
27 January 1783: The newspaper the Glasgow Herald is published for the first time.
10 August 1784: The death in Dover of the renowned portrait painter, Allan Ramsay (the Younger).
18 November 1785: The birth near Cupar of Sir David Wilkie, a Scottish artist who made his name for his works depicting historical and religious subjects, though he also painted portraits and a range of other subjects.
31 July 1786: Robert Burns publishes Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect. This collection of verse contains many poems that will later be regarded as classics.
1786: The New Lanark Mills are the biggest cotton mills in the world, making cotton the most important industry in Scotland.
1 December 1787: Scotland's first lighthouse lights up at Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh. It is built by Thomas Smith and Robert Stevenson.
22 January 1788: The Romantic poet George Gordon Byron, later to become 6th Baron Byron, is born in London.
31 January 1788: The death in exile in Rome of Charles Edward Stuart, better remembered as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or "The Young Pretender".
26 and 27 December 1789: William Symington operates a paddle steamer on the Forth and Clyde Canal.
17 June 1790: The death in Canada of William Davidson, the lumber merchant, ship builder and politician.
17 July 1790: The death of Adam Smith, the hugely influential political economist and moral philosopher.
27 July 1790: The Forth and Clyde Canal is opened to use.
3 March 1792: The death in London of Robert Adam, the most famous of the Adam family of architects.
4 June 1792: The King's Birthday riots, apparently prompted by agitators, begin in Edinburgh. They last three days and nights and lead to the death of at least one person.
18 July 1792: The death of John Paul Jones, father of the US Navy.
20 July 1793: Sir Alexander Mackenzie completes the first recorded crossing of North America north of Mexico to reach an inlet of the Pacific Ocean in Canada.
4 August 1792: The birth in Annan of Edward Irving. He became a successful preacher who in 1833 was accused of heresy for announcing the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, and went on to form his own sect.
27 April 1794: The death of James Bruce, who explored large parts of North Africa and Ethiopia and reached the source of the Blue Nile.
17 January 1795: Duddingston Curling Society is established, becoming one of the oldest curling clubs in existence.
19 May 1795: The premature death from from the effects of a dissolute lifestyle of James Boswell, the lawyer, diarist and author.
17 February 1796: The death of James Macpherson, the poet best known as the translator (or more likely the author) of the Ossian cycle of poems.
4 July 1796: Robert Burns takes up residence at the Brow Inn to seek a cure for what we now know was rhumatic fever. The "cure" comprises drinking the waters of the Brow Well and bathing in the Solway Firth.
29 August 1797: A peaceful demonstration in Tranent against conscription under the Militia Act is broken up by troops in what becomes known as the "Battle of Tranent", leading to twelve deaths.
10 October 1797: The birth in Edinburgh of Thomas Drummond, an engineer and the inventor of the Drummond Light who worked for the Ordnance Survey of Ireland before becoming a senior administrator in Ireland.
11 October 1797: Ships of the Royal Navy, commanded by Admiral Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan, intercept a Dutch fleet off the village of Camperdown in the Netherlands and destroy it.
4 July 1799: The death of Sir John Anstruther, 2nd Baronet, a Scottish politician and industrialist who served as Member of Parliament for Anstruther Burghs on three occasions and is remembered for his harbour improvements at Pittenweem and the development of coal mining and salt extraction at St Monans.
6 December 1799: The death of Joseph Black, the eminent Scottish physicist, chemist and medical doctor.