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Timeline: 1740 to 1800

February 1744: A French fleet intending to invade southern England is caught by the Royal Navy then dispersed by a storm. On board the failed invasion fleet is Charles Edward Stuart, the "Young Pretender".

1744: The Company of Gentlemen Golfers, later known as the Honourable Company of Edinburgh is formed.

5 July 1745: Charles Edwards Stuart sails from France for Scotland with two ships. The Elisabeth, carrying his military supplies and gold, is badly damaged in an encounter with a Royal Navy ship and has to turn back.

23 July 1745: Charles Edward Stuart lands on Eriskay in the Western Isles.

25 July 1745: Charles Edward Stuart lands at Loch nan Uamh on the mainland with just eight supporters, no supplies, and no funds.

19 August 1745: Charles Edward Stuart raises his standard at Glenfinnan.

4 September 1745: The Jacobite army takes Perth.

16 September 1745: The Jacobites take Edinburgh without a fight.

21 September 1745: At the Battle of Prestonpans, east of Edinburgh, the Jacobites defeat the assembled governmental forces under General Cope in a ten minute engagement.

31 October 1745: Charles Edward Stuart moves south from Edinburgh despite views among his supporters that it would be better to retain Scotland and wait for a promised French invasion of England.

15 November 1745: Carlisle falls to the Jacobites after they have bypassed Government forces under Field Marshal George Wade.

4 December 1745: Charles Edward Stuart and the Jacobite army reaches Derby. In London, only 150 miles south, there is total panic and it is reported that George II is preparing to flee.

6 December 1745: In the absence of the promised French invasion of England and in the light of very limited support from English Jacobites, Charles withdraws from Derby.

20 December 1745: The Jacobite army retreats into Scotland.

8 January 1746: Stirling surrenders to the Jacobite forces.

17 January 1746: A large Jacobite army defeats government forces at the Battle of Falkirk Muir. Charles Edward Stuart, increasingly drunk since Derby, fails to take advantage. Amongst the casualties on the Government side is Sir Robert Munro.

1 February 1746: The Jacobites move north in the face of increasingly strong government forces under the Duke of Cumberland.

16 April 1746: The opposing armies finally meet at the Battle of Culloden. For a full account of the final defeat of the Jacobites read our feature page on the battle.

20 April 1746: Bonnie Prince Charlie flees to Arisaig where he stays for a week.

21 April 1746: The City of Glasgow hosts formal celebrations to mark the defeat of the Jacobites, and awards the Duke of Cumberland the freedom of the city.

30 April 1746: Four days after Charles leaves Arisaig two French ships carrying supplies and funds arrive in an effort to help him.

20 September 1746: Bonnie Prince Charlie sails for France from Loch nan Uamh near Arisaig, very close to the spot at which he landed in July 1745. The site is today marked by the Prince's Cairn.

1 August 1747: The Act of Proscription prohibits the wearing of highland garb, in particular tartans and kilts, except within the army.

14 May 1752: Colin Campbell, the Red Fox, is killed in the Appin Murder at Ballachulish.

14 May 1754: Golf is formalised at St Andrews with the foundation of the St Andrews Society of Golfers.

1755: A census by the Reverend Alexander Webster puts the population of Scotland at 1,265,380. England's population is five times larger.

1756: An Act of the Court of Session in Edinburgh establishes that tenants may easily be removed by the local sheriff. This is to have major implications in the Highlands in following years.

1759: An iron works is established at Carron near Falkirk, producing cannons called Carronades.

25 January 1759: The birth of Robert Burns.

1760: The Highland Clearances gain momentum. The pressure on highlanders through increased rents and more direct means to leave the land results in 20,000 emigrating by 1773, many for Canada and other colonies.

25 October 1760: King George II dies: he is succeeded by King George III.

23 December 1761: The death of Alestair Ruadh MacDonnell, the government spy in the Jacobite camp known as "Pickle".

31 October 1765: The Duke of Cumberland, known in the Highlands as "Butcher Cumberland" dies in London aged 44.

1767: Work begins on the building of Edinburgh New Town.

10 July 1767: The death of Alexander Monro, pioneer of medical education in Edinburgh.

1768-1771: The Encyclopedia Britannica is published in Edinburgh.

1769: Fort George near Inverness, built at vast cost to ensure the continued suppression of the Highlands, is completed.

May 1769: Helen Gloag, later to be the Empress of Morocco, sets sail for America but en route is captured by Barbary pirates from Salé in Morocco.

10 September 1771: The birth of Mungo Park, who made his name as an early explorer of the African continent.

17 September 1771: The death in Italy of Scottish author, Tobias Smollett.

18 August 1773: Samuel Johnson and James Boswell set out on their three month tour of the Highlands and the Inner Hebrides of which both subsequently write detailed accounts.

15 September 1773: Emigrants board the "Hector" at Ullapool to sail to Nova Scotia after being cleared from their land to make way for sheep.

25 August 1776: The death of David Hume, generally regarded as the most important philosopher ever to write in English

12 January 1777 : The death of Brigadier-General Hugh Mercer, the Scottish-born American revolutionary general.

1 July 1782: The Act of Proscription is repealed and the kilt and wearing of tartans comes into more general use.

27 January 1783: The newspaper the Glasgow Herald is published for the first time.

1783: Glasgow's Chamber of Commerce is the first group of its kind in the UK.

1786: Robert Burns publishes his "Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect".

1786: The New Lanark Mills are the biggest cotton mills in the world, making cotton the most important industry in Scotland.

1 December 1787: Scotland's first lighthouse lights up at Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh. It is built by Thomas Smith and Robert Stevenson.

1 October 1788: Deacon William Brodie is hanged at Edinburgh's Tolbooth.

26 and 27 December 1789: William Symington operates a paddle steamer on the Forth and Clyde Canal.

5 March 1790: The death of Flora MacDonald.

17 July 1790 : The death of Adam Smith, the hugely influential political economist and moral philosopher.

27 July 1790: The Forth and Clyde Canal is opened to use.

18 July 1792: The death of John Paul Jones, father of the US Navy.

6 December 1799: The death of Joseph Black, the eminent Scottish physicist, chemist and medical doctor.

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