March 1700: Following their arrival in Caledonia in November 1699, the second Darien expedition faces skirmishes with the Spanish and is eventually forced to abandon their efforts in the face of these superior forces. The Darien venture costs Scotland many hundreds of lives and a quarter of its total available resources. It coincides with a series of failed harvests in Scotland that leaves up to a quarter of the population dying of starvation.
23 May 1701: Captain William Kidd is hung at Wapping for murder and piracy.
Summer 1701: The English Parliament passes the Act of Settlement. The heir to the crowns of England and Ireland, after William and Mary's surviving heir Anne, is to be the Protestant grand-daughter of King James I/VI, Sophie, the Electress of Hanover. The succession will then pass in turn her 40 year old son, Prince George of Hanover. The Scottish Parliament is not consulted.
5 September 1701: James VII/II dies in France. His claim to the throne and the Jacobite cause pass to his 13 year old son, James Francis Edward Stewart. He is recognised by the French King as King James VIII/III of Great Britain, in effect declaring war on William.
April 1703: The Edinburgh Fire Brigade is formed.
1703: The Scottish Parliament passes the Act of Security, under which Scotland will not in future be bound to accept the same monarch as England unless Scotland is accorded completely free trade with England and the colonies. Royal Assent is refused by the Queen's Commissioner.
5 August 1704: The Scottish Parliament refuses to raise taxes and threatens to withdraw troops from Marlborough's army in France unless the crown accepts the Act of Security and it is given Royal Assent. It is.
5 February 1705: The English Parliament pass the Alien Act designed to secure English interests from what they see as the subversion of the Scottish Parliament. In effect, the Scots are invited to negotiate a full union with England, on pain of seizure of Scottish assets and the ending of Scottish exports to England if they do not.
Spring 1705: Three crew of the English ship Worcester are hanged in Edinburgh on suspicion of piracy against a Scottish Darien Company ship.
Spring 1706: The Anglo-Scottish Parliamentary Commission meets to agree a draft Treaty of Union.
3 October 1706: The Scottish Parliament begins its debate on the Treaty of Union between Scotland and England.
16 January 1707: The Scottish Parliament agrees the Treaty of Union by 110 votes to 67. The debate preceding it is carried out against a backdrop of growing anti-union unrest across Scotland. The outcome is driven by economic necessity, by overt compensation for Scotland's national debts and the losses of Darien investors, and, allegedly, by covert bribes for key participants.
19 March 1707: The English Parliament ratifies the Treaty of Union.
25 March 1707: The Scottish Parliament adjourns, and is dissolved three days later.
1 May 1707: The Treaty of Union comes into effect. Queen Anne became the first sovereign of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
23 October 1707: The first Parliament of Great Britain meets in London.
13 March 1708: The French fleet arrives in the Firth of Forth, but is then attacked by the Royal Navy. The fleet, and Prince James, escapes and returns to Dunkirk without landing.
2 February 1709: Alexander Selkirk, famous for spending four years as a castaway on the uninhabited Juan Fernández Islands is rescued.
1710: Sir William Bruce, the leading Scottish architect of his generation, dies.
13 November 1715: A Jacobite uprising in northern England is cornered and defeated in Preston.
31 January 1716: The Jacobites abandon Perth in the face of reinforced government forces.
13 April 1719: A small Spanish force, believing itself to be part of a much larger invasion planned for England to return the Jacobites to power, lands in Loch Duich, inland from the site of Kyle of Lochalsh.
10 May 1719: Royal Navy ships bombard the Spanish headquarters at Eilean Donan Castle and subsequently destroy the castle.
10 June 1719: The Spanish troops, now supported by only 1000 Highland Jacobites, are defeated at the Battle of Glenshiel which takes place on the steep mountainsides flanking the Glen. The Spanish surrender but their part in the battle is remembered by the name of the overlooking mountain, Sgurr nan Spainnteach, or Peak of the Spaniards.
1720: The Earl of Islay is appointed Secretary of Scotland.
1723: The Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture in Scotland is formed to help improve farming methods. Its main aim is to find ways to make the Highlands more economically productive and it is instrumental in the clearances that begin later in the century.
25 December 1724: General George Wade is appointed Chief of His Majesty's forces, castles, forts and barracks in North Britain,. He begins the construction of hundreds of miles of good "military" roads and stone bridges designed to allow government troops to counter future uprisings with greater ease.
23 June 1725: Serious rioting breaks out in Glasgow in protest at Westminster-imposed taxes on Scottish malt.
1725: The Disarming Act forbids Highlanders from carrying arms in public, a long standing custom.
21 March 1729 : The death of the economist, John Law.
1730: The first systematic emigration begins from highland areas to American colonies, largely in response to rent increases.
7 September 1736: An Edinburgh crowd hear that Captain Porteous's has been pardoned. That night they break into his cell and publicly lynch him. None of those responsible is caught and the City of Edinburgh is fined £2,000 over the incident.
8 November 1736: Scotland's first public theatre opens in Carruber's Close, Edinburgh.