May 1303: Edward I invades Scotland once more, with a view to subjugating the country once and for all.
23 August 1305: The trial and execution in London of Sir William Wallace, one time Guardian of Scotland.
10 February 1306: Robert the Bruce, the grandson of the Robert Bruce who had competed with John Balliol for the crown in 1292, murders John III Comyn, the Red Comyn, head of one of the most powerful familes in Scotland and his only rival as future king in a church in Dumfries.
10 May 1307: At the Battle of Loudoun Hill in Ayrshire, Robert the Bruce defeats forces loyal to the English.
7 July 1307: King Edward I of England dies.
Friday, 13 October 1307: King Philip IV rounds up the Knights Templar in France as part of his campaign to gain control of the Order's vast wealth. In 1312 he persuades Pope Clement V to dissolve the Order, which in Scotland sees their assets, previously controlled from Temple, transferred to the Knights Hospitaller of the Order of St John of Jerusalem and administered from Torphichen Preceptory.
8 November 1308 : Death of the theologian, philosopher, and logician, John Duns Scotus.
19 February 1314: Roxburgh Castle is captured from the English by Sir James Douglas, the Black Douglas, who disguises his men as cows.
24 June 1314: An English army under King Edward II sent to relieve Stirling Castle is defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward II only narrowly escapes with his life. It is the most notable single military victory in Scottish history.
1315: Robert the Bruce invades Ireland and his brother is declared King.
2 March 1316: The birth of King Robert II of Scotland.
6 April 1320: The Declaration of Arbroath, drafted by Bernard, Abbot of Arbroath, is addressed to the Pope in an effort to have him recognise Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland (and remove the excommunication that followed his murder of the Red Comyn in a church). It defines the relationship between the Scottish King and the Scots people.
5 March 1324: The birth of King David II of Scotland.
27 October 1327: Queen Elizabeth de Burgh, the second wife of Robert the Bruce, dies at Cullen Castle, and her "interiores partes" are buried in Cullen Old Kirk. The remainder of her body is taken south for burial at Dunfermline Abbey.
17 March 1328: The First War of Scottish Independence ends with the Treaty of Edinburgh and Northampton, under which the English Crown recognises that the Kingdom of Scotland is fully independent.
1334: The English, with a remarkable lack of forethought, allowed Sir Andrew Murray to ransom himself and return to Scotland. Sir Andrew Murray then yet again forces Edward Balliol to flee to England.
September 1335: Sir Andrew Murray is appointed Guardian of Scotland for the second time.
February 1337: Sir Andrew Murray begins a campaign that slowly rolls back the English occupation of Scotland. Edward Balliol flees, for the final time, in May, only to find that Edward III is more interested in war with France than war with Scotland.
June 1341: David II returns to Scotland from France, aged 17.
1349: The Black Death reaches Scotland, killing as many as 200,000 people out of a population of 1 million over the following two years.