8 August 1503: A "Treaty of Perpetual Peace" with England is followed by the marriage between James IV and Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII of England at Holyrood. This does little to interrupt James IV's succession of mistresses and illegitimate children.
1503: The death of John MacDonald II, the last Lord of the Isles.
1 July 1505: The Barber Surgeons of Edinburgh are granted a charter by the City Council enabling them to practise surgery within the city. This marks the beginnings of the Royal College of Surgeons.
26 July 1513: James IV responds to pleas for assistance from France and gives notice to his brother in law, Henry VIII, that he is going to invade Northumberland.
22 August 1513: The Scottish army crosses the border with England, taking Norham Castle amongst others.
9 September 1513: At the Battle of Flodden, near Coldstream, up to 10,000 Scots are killed, including James IV himself and many Scots nobles. This compares with losses of just 1,700 on the English side. It is a decisive victory for the English and a catastrophe for Scotland. The English King Henry VIII is campaigning in France at the time.
May 1515: John, Duke of Albany, son of James III's exiled brother Alexander, accepts the Scottish Parliament's invitation to become Regent in place of Margaret Tudor during James V's childhood. He brings from France, where he has been brought up, French troops and support.
May 1524: Following a coup d'état, the Duke of Albany returns to France with his supporting troops. This leaves the way clear for Margaret Tudor, mother of James V, to have her son crowned at the age of twelve.
29 February 1528: Patrick Hamilton is tried and found guilty for heresy and burned in St Andrews. He is the first of eleven Protestant martyrs in Scotland.
1 January 1537: Although she is in ill health, James V marries Madeleine, daughter of King Francois of France, in Paris. By July her health has worsened and she dies at Holyrood Palace.
17 July 1537: Janet, Countess of Glamis, and the sister in law of James V's exiled stepfather, the Earl of Angus, is tried on charges including trying to poison the King. She is burned at the stake outside Edinburgh Castle and her - extremely rich - estate is forfeited to James V.
June 1538: James marries again, to Marie de Guise, adopted sister of Madeleine.
20 December1539: Archbishop David Beaton is appointed a Cardinal by Pope Paul III.
1540: James V tours the northern and western outposts of his kingdom in a fleet of warships to impose his rule.
10 January 1543: Cardinal David Beaton appointed himself Chancellor of Scotland
1 July 1543: The Treaty of Greenwich is agreed between King Henry VIII of England and the Earl of Arran, providing for the marriage of the then infant Mary, Queen of Scots to Henry's son. It is later repudiated by the Scottish Parliament.
December 1543: The Scottish Parliament believes it better to pursue alliance with France than England and takes advantage of the failure of the English Parliament to ratify the Treaties of Greenwich by repudiating them.
1545: Cross border raids by English forces continue.
27 February 1545: The Battle of Ancrum Moor is fought north west of Jedburgh between English and Scottish forces as part of the War of the Rough Wooing. The result is a decisive victory for the Scottish.
31 July 1547: French naval forces in support of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots bombard St Andrews Castle and capture the Protestant rebels. These include John Knox, who is sent to become a galley-slave.
10 September 1547: A large English army with naval support meets and soundly beats the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie, a little to the east of Edinburgh. The English move on to occupy Edinburgh, though not its castle. They bombard Dundee, destroying much of it.
7 July 1548: The Treaty of Haddington is agreed between Scotland and France. Under its terms Mary, Queen of Scots is to marry Dauphin Francis in return for French assistance in ending the siege of Haddington.