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Timeline: 1400 to 1450

1400: The Duke of Rothesay bigamously marries Mary Douglas. The father of his spurned first wife gains support from Henry IV of England and an English army easily takes Edinburgh, except for the castle, before withdrawing.

1401: David Stewart, 1st Duke of Rothesay is captured by his uncle Robert, Duke of Albany and imprisoned in St Andrews Castle. He is subsequently moved to the Duke of Albany's home at Falkland Palace in Fife.

March 1402: David Stewart, 1st Duke of Rothesay dies at Falkland Palace as a result, the General Council decides, of "Divine Providence". Others say the cause is starvation. This leaves David's 7 year-old brother James as heir to the throne still held by Robert III. There are fears that James in turn will not be safe from the ambitions of his uncle Robert.

February 1406: An army of James' supporters is defeated by the Duke of Albany at Edinburgh. James is taken for safety to Bass Rock, off North Berwick.

22 March 1406: James is captured by pirates off Flamborough Head in Yorkshire while en route to sanctuary in France. They then hand him over to Henry IV of England.

4 April 1406: King Robert III dies in Rothesay Castle after hearing the news of James' capture. James therefore succeeds to the throne as James I at the age of 11 and as a prisoner of the English.

1406: Robert, Duke of Albany becomes Governor of Scotland in his nephew's absence and moves his base to Doune Castle.

1407: The Duke of Albany negotiates a renewal of the long standing treaty of mutual support against England with France.

24 July 1411: At the Battle of Harlaw, 20 miles north of Aberdeen, the highland army of Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles meets the lowland army of Alexander, Earl of Mar, son of the Wolf of Badenoch. At stake is the Earldom of Ross and control of northern Scotland. After an inconclusive day of heavy fighting and heavy casualties, Donald retires to Inverness and Alexander to Aberdeen.

1413: The University of St Andrews is founded as a center for learning and the arts.

1420: Robert, Duke of Albany dies and is succeeded as Governor of Scotland by his son, Murdoch.

1423 : Alexander of Islay becomes the 3rd Lord of the Isles following the death of Donald of Islay.

December 1423: The Treaty of London provides for the release of King James I by Henry VI of England in return for a King's ransom of £40,000, plus £4,000 for the expenses incurred during James' 18 years of captivity.

February 1424: James I marries Lady Joan Beaufort, a close relative of Henry VI, in London.

21 May 1424: James I is crowned at Scone.

April 1425: James I arrests many members of the Albany family, descendents of his uncle, Robert. James Albany evades long enough to attack Dumbarton and destroy the castle, so justifying a charge of treason against the family.

May 1425: The Scottish Parliament meets in Stirling to try the Albany family for treason. Murdoch and three others are executed and the family is virtually extinguished.

1428: James I summons Alexander, Lord of the Isles and other highland clan chiefs to a meeting in Inverness, and has them arrested. Three are executed as an example, but others including Alexander are later released.

1429: Alexander, Lord of the Isles, attacks and destroys Inverness. James I retaliates and captures Alexander releasing him again two years later.

16 October 1430: Twin sons, James and Alexander, are born to James I and Joan. Alexander dies as a baby, but James survives.

September 1431: A lowland army under the command of Alexander, Earl of Mar, is defeated by kinsmen of the imprisoned Alexander of Islay, Lord of the Isles at the Battle of Inverlochy.

August 1436: James I loses considerably credibility after his efforts to besiege the English in Roxburgh Castle fail miserably.

21 February 1437: James I is assassinated while staying at the Abbey of Black Friars in Perth. Queen Joan is injured but escapes with her son James. She arranged for the conspirators, including relatives of James I' to be caught and executed.

25 March 1437: James II is crowned in Edinburgh, aged 6.

24 November 1440: The Livingston and Crichton families seek to secure their joint influence over the young James II by killing the Earl of Douglas and his brother in the presence of the King at Edinburgh Castle.

3 July 1449: James II takes formal control of his kingdom following his marriage to Marie, niece of the Duke of Burgundy in Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh.

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