25 March 1005: The Battle of Monzievaird takes place just north of Crieff, close to the location of today's Glenturret Distillery. King Kenneth III is killed in the battle by his successor, Malcolm II.
1018: Malcolm II defeats the Northumbrians at the Battle of Carham, near the River Tweed. This leads to the first demarcation of the modern border between Scotland and England. He also incorporates the British Kingdom of Strathclyde into what is increasingly known as Scotland.
15 August 1040: Duncan I tries to impose his will on northern Scotland, but loses to Macbeth of Moray and Earl Thorfinn of Orkney at the Battle of Pitgaveny, near Elgin. Duncan is killed during the battle, and King Macbeth is crowned at Scone later in 1040.
1072: Malcolm III's incursions into Northumbria provoke an invasion of Scotland by the Normans. This ended with the Treaty of Abernethy, in English eyes a submission that gives rise to later claims of dominance of the English throne over the Scots throne.
1093: Malcolm is succeeded by his younger brother, Donald, who becomes Donald III and jointly rules with Malcolm's son Edmund. The Scots evict the many English who have gathered around the Anglicised court of Malcolm and Margaret, including their surviving children.
22 August 1138: The Scots army under David I is defeated at the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton in Yorkshire. Despite the defeat, the Treaty of Durham that follows in 1139 gives David I effective control over Northumbria and Cumbria.
9 April 1139: The second Treaty of Durham is a concluded between King Stephen of England and King David I of Scotland. Under its terms Stephen recognises the independence of Scotland.
28 June 1146: A service of dedication is held in the abbey church at Melrose Abbey, which would take another 50 years to complete in its entirety.
1157: Henry II of England rips up a promise given to David I in 1149 to allow the Scots all the land North of the River Tees. He summons the 16 year old Malcolm IV, to Chester and persuades him to sign a treaty giving up Cumbria and Northumbria to the English.
1164: Somerled lands an army of 15,000 men from 164 galleys at Greenock. He intends to capture Renfrew, but is confronted by an army under Walter Fitzalan somewhere near Inchinnan (close to the site of today's Glasgow Airport). Somerled is betrayed and killed, allegedly by a nephew in the pay of Malcolm IV. His army returns to their galleys and depart without engaging in a full scale battle.
9 December 1165: Malcolm dies, aged 24 and unmarried, and is succeeded by his younger brother William I or William the Lion after his symbol, a red lion rampant on a yellow field that becomes the basis of one of Scotland's two flags.
8 December 1174: King William I, William the Lion, signs the Treaty of Falaise to secure his release from English captivity. This gives control of key Scottish castles to the English and acknowledges Henry II of England as his feudal superior.
1189: The Treaty of Falaise is nullified in return for a payment to Henry's son Richard I.