Logo: small map of Scotland

Timeline: 1000 to 1200

25 March 1005: The Battle of Monzievaird takes place just north of Crieff, close to the location of today's Glenturret Distillery. King Kenneth III is killed in the battle by his successor, Malcolm II.

1018: Malcolm II defeats the Northumbrians at the Battle of Carham, near the River Tweed. This leads to the first demarcation of the modern border between Scotland and England. He also incorporates the British Kingdom of Strathclyde into what is increasingly known as Scotland.

25 November 1034: Malcolm II is assassinated at Glamis and is succeeded by Duncan I.

15 August 1040: Duncan I tries to impose his will on northern Scotland, but loses to Macbeth of Moray and Earl Thorfinn of Orkney at the Battle of Pitgaveny, near Elgin. Duncan is killed during the battle, and King Macbeth is crowned at Scone later in 1040.

1054: Duncan I's son, Malcolm Canmore, challenges for the throne of Scotland in alliance with Siward, Earl of Northumbria and they take control of much of southern Scotland.

27 July 1057: Malcolm Canmore, defeats Macbeth at the Battle of Lumphanan in Perthshire.

25 April 1058: Malcolm Canmore, is crowned Malcolm III, founder of the House of Dunkeld.

1065: Malcolm III marries Ingibjorg, daughter of Thorfinn the Mighty, Earl of Orkney, bringing stability in the north of Alba.

1070: Malcolm III, now a widower, marries his second wife, Margaret - later St Margaret - a Saxon princess in Dunfermline. She is part of the English royal family fleeing the Normans after 1066.

1072: Malcolm III's incursions into Northumbria provoke an invasion of Scotland by the Normans. This ended with the Treaty of Abernethy, in English eyes a submission that gives rise to later claims of dominance of the English throne over the Scots throne.

1079: Another Norman/English invasion of Scotland following further raids into Northumbria by Malcolm III's The Treaty of Abernethy is reimposed.

13 November 1093: Malcolm Canmore, is killed, along with his eldest son by Margaret, in yet another raid on Northumbria.

16 November 1093: Margaret dies of grief and is buried in the church she has founded in Dunfermline. She later becomes St Margaret and Dunfermline becomes a centre of pilgrimage.

1093: Malcolm is succeeded by his younger brother, Donald, who becomes Donald III and jointly rules with Malcolm's son Edmund. The Scots evict the many English who have gathered around the Anglicised court of Malcolm and Margaret, including their surviving children.

1094: Duncan, eldest son of Malcolm III and Ingibjorg, who has been a hostage with the English court since Abernethy, becomes Duncan II after defeating Donald III and Edmund with Norman/English help.

12 November 1094: Duncan II is killed at Battle of Monthechin, near Kincardine. Donald III and Edmund return to the throne.

1097: Edgar, a son of Malcolm III and Margaret, invades at the head of another Norman/English army and becomes King Edgar. Donald III is blinded and Edmund sent to a monastery..

8 January 1107: Alexander, Edgar's younger brother, succeeds to the throne on Edgar's death as Alexander I.

23 April 1124: On Alexander's death he is succeeded by his younger brother, who becomes David I, and the third of the sons of Malcolm III and Margaret to become King of Scots.

22 August 1138: The Scots army under David I is defeated at the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton in Yorkshire in an attempt to capitalise on unrest in England to extend his kingdom. Despite the defeat, the Treaty of Durham that follows in 1139 gives David I effective control over Northumbria and Cumbria.

24 May 1153: David I dies, and is succeeded by his grandson, Malcolm IV, aged 12.

6 January 1156: Somerled defeats the Norse and subsequently becomes King of the Isles, leader of a Gaelic state centred on Finlaggan on Islay.

1157: Henry II of England rips up a promise given to David I in 1149 to allow the Scots all the land North of the River Tees. He summons the 16 year old Malcolm IV, to Chester and persuades him to sign a treaty giving up Cumbria and Northumbria to the English.

1164: Somerled lands an army of 15,000 men from 164 galleys at Greenock. He intends to capture Renfrew, but is confronted by an army under Walter Fitzalan somewhere near Inchinnan (close to the site of today's Glasgow Airport). Somerled is betrayed and killed, allegedly by a nephew in the pay of Malcolm IV. His army returns to their galleys and depart without engaging in a full scale battle.

9 December 1165: Malcolm dies, aged 24 and unmarried, and is succeeded by his younger brother William I or William the Lion after his symbol, a red lion rampant on a yellow field that becomes the basis of one of Scotland's two flags.

13 July 1174: William I is captured by the English at Alnwick while trying to retake Northumbria.

December 1174: In the Treaty of Falaise, where William I is being held captive, he agrees that the King of Scots will henceforth be subordinate to the King of England, and that key Scottish castles would be occupied by the English.

1186: Henry II of England forces William I to marry Ermengard, from a Norman family: and gives her Edinburgh Castle as a wedding present.

1189: The Treaty of Falaise is nullified in return for a payment to Henry's son Richard I.

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