1 September 1971: The last gas street lamps in Glasgow are phased out and replaced by electric lights.
2 September 1834: The death in London of the civil engineer, road, bridge and canal builder Thomas Telford. He is buried in Westminster Abbey.
2 September 1913: The birth in the remote East Ayrshire mining village of Glenbuck of Bill Shankly, the highly respected football manager best known for leading Liverpool FC to a string of successes in the 1960s and 1970s.
3 September 1650: The Battle of Dunbar is a resounding victory for Cromwell, largely because of the actions of extreme religious factions on the Scottish side. Cromwell then marches on Edinburgh and subsequently occupies much of southern Scotland.
3 September 1651: Cromwell attacks Charles II and the Scots Royalists defending Worcester and inflicts a heavy defeat on them. Charles Stewart manages to escape: many of the Scots including Major-General David Leslie do not.
3 September 1658: Oliver Cromwell dies. His son, Richard Cromwell is unable to maintain the Protectorate and resigns in Spring 1659.
3 September 1719: The marriage takes place James Francis Edward Stuart, "The Old Pretender", and the Polish Princess Maria Clementina Sobieska at Montefiascone in Italy.
3 September 1918: The death of author and pioneering woman doctor, Margaret Todd.
3 September 1939: The Second World War is declared.
4 September 1241: The birth of the future King Alexander III.
4 September 1561: Mary Queen of Scots meets John Knox at the Palace of Holyroodhouse to try to resolve the religious differences between them. The meeting fails and Mary neither ratifies nor revokes the Protestant Acts passed by Parliament.
4 September 1745: The Jacobite army takes Perth.
4 September 1939: The Scottish Office establishes its Headquarters in Edinburgh at St Andrews House.
4 September 1962: The trams stop running in Glasgow.
5 September 1707: The birth near Dunfermline of Brigadier General John Forbes, the a British Army officer best known for his role in the French and Indian War, the North American end of the Seven Years' War.
5 September 1965: The death in Milngavie of Tom Johnston, who served as Secretary of State for Scotland from 1941 to 1945 and is best remembered for his role in driving ahead a number of large hydro-electricity schemes across the Highlands.
6 September 1661: King Charles II restores episcopal government to Scotland by royal decree. Alternative services called conventicles, often held in the open air, that spring up in an effort to retain a Presbyterian approach, are later made illegal.
7 September 1736: An Edinburgh crowd hear that Captain Porteous, Captain of the Edinburgh City Guard, has been pardoned following his conviction for murder. That night they break into his cell and publicly lynch him. None of those responsible is caught and the City of Edinburgh is fined £2,000 over the incident.
8 September 1897: The Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour in the Braes of Glenlivet is officially opened by the Archbishop of St Andrews & Edinburgh and the Bishop of Aberdeen.
8 September 1948: The first service is held in the (still roofless) abbey church at Pluscarden Abbey.
9 September 1513: At the Battle of Flodden, near Coldstream, up to 10,000 Scots are killed, including James IV himself and many Scots nobles. This compares with losses of just 1,700 on the English side. It is a decisive victory for the English and a catastrophe for Scotland. The English King Henry VIII is campaigning in France at the time.
10 September 1547: A large English army with naval support meets and soundly beats the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie, a little to the east of Edinburgh. The English move on to occupy Edinburgh, though not its castle. They bombard Dundee, destroying much of it.
10 September 1985: The death in Wales of Jock Stein, the football manager best remembered as manager of Celtic and of the Scotland national team.
11 September 1997: A referendum asks Scots two questions. The first is whether there should be a separate Parliament for Scotland. The second is whether that Parliament should have the power to vary levels of taxation. 74.3% vote yes to the first question, and 63.5% vote yes to the second question.
12 September 1640: The death in London of Sir William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling, the Royal courtier and poet who established Nova Scotia.
12 September 1847: The birth at Mount Stuart on the Isle of Bute of John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute, remembered as a scholar, historian, archaeologist, romantic, mystic, and one of the greatest patrons of the arts in the Victorian era.
12 September 1885: A professional football match held in Arbroath results in a scoreline of Arbroath, 36: Bon Accord (an Aberdeen club), 0. For over a century this stood as the largest margin of victory in professional football.
13 September 1644: The Battle of Aberdeen between Royalists and Covenanters is followed by the sacking of Aberdeen by the victorious Royalist forces.
13 September 1645: Major-General Leslie's Covenanter army returning from England after Naseby meets Montrose and the Royalists at the Battle of Philiphaugh near Selkirk and comprehensively defeats them.
14 September 1402: The Battle of Homildon Hill near Wooler in Northumberland results in a decisive victory for the English over the Scots.
15 September 1773: The emigrant ship "Hector" arrives in Pictou Harbour on Nova Scotia carrying 189 Highlanders, most loaded two months earlier in Ullapool.
15 September 1860: Marischal College and King's College in Aberdeen merge to form a single University of Aberdeen.
16 September 1701: James VII/II dies in France. His claim to the throne and the Jacobite cause pass to his 13 year old son, James Francis Edward Stewart. He is recognised by the French King as King James VIII/III of Great Britain, in effect declaring war on King William.
16 September 1745: The Jacobites take Edinburgh without a fight.
16 September 1812: The birth near Duns of Robert Fortune, a botanist and plant collector best known for breaking the Chinese tea monopoly when he smuggled large numbers of tea plants from China to India.
17 September 1771: The death in Italy of Scottish author, Tobias Smollett.
18 September 1905: The death in England of George MacDonald, the church minister who became an early author of fantasy fiction.
18 September 1959: 47 miners are killed in the Auchengeich mining disaster at Auchengeich Colliery in North Lanarkshire.
18 September 2014: Those eligible to vote in Scotland vote in a referendum on the question "Should Scotland be an independent country?". The result is a "no" vote, by 55% to 45%.
19 September 1697: The birth in Edinburgh of Alexander Monro (primus) a physician and surgeon, and the first in a line of "Alexander Monros" to be appointed to the post of Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh.
19 September 1851: The birth in Lancashire of William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme, an English industrialist, philanthropist and colonialist who, amongst many other ventures, for a time owned Lewis and Harris and had a profound and lasting influence on the island.
20 September 1854: Arctic explorer Dr John Rae sails from Canada for England with news of the fate of the missing expedition of Sir John Franklin.
20 September 1967: The liner Queen Elizabeth II is launched at Clydebank.
21 September 1756: The birth in Ayr of John Loudon McAdam, who would make his fortune in the United States before returning to Scotland and developing the most important improvements in roadbuilding techniques since the Romans.
21 September 1910: Captain Bertram Dickson flies the world's first ever military sortie in an aeroplane, observing military manoeuvres on Salisbury Plain.
22 September 1759: The birth near Dundee of William Playfair, the engineer and political economist remembered primarily for his innovations in the presentation of quantitative information by means of graphs and charts.
23 September 1779: The Battle of Flamborough Head takes place off Yorkshire between ships of the American Continental Navy commanded by John Paul Jones and Royal Navy ships protecting a merchant convoy.
24 September 1850: St Mary's Dalmahoy is consecrated at a service led by the Bishop of Edinburgh.
24 September 1930: The death in New Zealand of Harry McNish, the carpenter on Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914 to 1917.
26 September 1826: The murder near Timbuktu of Alexander Gordon Laing, the first European to reach the city from the north.
26 September 1915 : The death of Keir Hardie, first leader of the Labour Party.
26 September 1934: The liner "Queen Mary" is launched at the John Brown shipyard on the River Clyde, before going on to break transatlantic speed records following her maiden voyage to New York on 27 May 1936.
26 September 1994: The death of the novelist, playwright and radio producer, Jessie Kesson.
27 September 1831: The first passenger railway in Scotland, between Glasgow and Garnkirk in Lanarkshire, begins operations.
27 September 1938: The liner "Queen Elizabeth", the largest passenger ship so far built, is launched at John Brown's on the Clyde.
28 September 1396: The Battle of the Inch, or the Battle of the Clans, is organised on Perth's North Inch by King Robert III in an effort to end a long standing feud between the Kay and Chattan Clans.
28 September 1928: Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
29 September 1902: The death of William Topaz McGonagall, widely celebrated as the worst poet ever to have written in the English language.
29 September 1981: The death in Liverpool of Bill Shankly, the highly respected football manager best known for leading Liverpool FC to a string of successes in the 1960s and 1970s.
30 September 1985: The death in New York of Helen MacInnes, the Scottish-born author of espionage novels.