1 January 1537: Although she is in ill health, James V marries Madeleine, daughter of King Francois of France, in Paris. By July her health has worsened and she dies at Holyrood Palace.
1 January 1766: James Francis Edward Stuart, also known as James VIII/III or "The Old Pretender", dies in exile in Rome.
1 January 1783: The constitution is drafted for the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, making it the oldest in Britain.
1 January 1919: The troop ship Iolaire sinks in the entrance to Stornoway harbour, killing over 200 islanders returning from World War One.
1 January 1923: The Railways Act 1921 comes into force, leading to the creation of the London and North Eastern Railway and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.
2 January 1971 : 66 football fans are killed and over 200 more are injured at in a crush as they try to leave Ibrox Park, the ground of Rangers F.C. in Glasgow.
3 January 1959: The death of Edwin Muir, one of Scotlands best 20th Century poets.
5 January 1899: The first electric-powered tram in Glasgow begins the replacement of the horse-drawn service.
5 January 1993: The oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on the coast of Shetland, leading to large-scale environmental damage.
6 January 1980: The author A.J. Cronin, creator of Dr Finlay, dies in Switzerland.
7 January 1451: The University of Glasgow is founded.
8 January 1746: Stirling surrenders to the Jacobite forces.
9 January 1811: The first women's golf tournament anywhere in the world is held at Musselburgh.
10 January 1543: Cardinal David Beaton appointed himself Chancellor of Scotland
12 January 1682: The Presbyterians become an underground movement of resistance to the crown and government. Sporadic violence continues on both sides.
12 January 1777 : The death of Brigadier-General Hugh Mercer, the Scottish-born American revolutionary general.
13 January 1915: The missionary Mary Slessor dies in Calabar in south eastern Nigeria.
15 January 1968: A hurricane strikes Strathclyde leaving 2,000 people homeless and killing 20.
15 January 1973: The death at the age of 81 of the influential highland author, Neil M. Gunn.
15 January 1990: Strathclyde Regional Council applies for 250,000 summary warrants against residents refusing to pay the highly controversial "Poll Tax", introduced in Scotland in 1989.
16 January 1707: The Scottish Parliament agrees the Treaty of Union by 110 votes to 67. The debate preceding it is carried out against a backdrop of growing anti-union unrest across Scotland. The outcome is driven by economic necessity, by overt compensation for Scotland's national debts and the losses of Darien investors, and, allegedly, by covert bribes for key participants.
16 January 1809: The death of Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore at the Battle of Corunna
17 January 1284: Alexander III's eldest son, also named Alexander, dies aged 20 without children. Alexander III's younger son had died in 1281, and his daughter, Margaret, in 1283, leaving him with an infant granddaughter, also called Margaret, living in Norway. Alexander's wife Margaret had died in 1275.
17 January 1746: A large Jacobite army defeats government forces at the Battle of Falkirk Muir. Charles Edward Stuart, increasingly drunk since Derby, fails to take advantage. Amongst the casualties on the Government side is Sir Robert Munro.
17 January 1883: The author if "Whisky Galore", Compton Mackenzie, is born in Hartlepool in North East England.
17 January 1795: Duddingston Curling Society is established, becoming one of the oldest curling clubs in existence.
19 January 1644: A Scottish Covenanter army of 20,000 men under the command of Alexander Leslie moves south to support the Parliamentary Army.
19 January 1736: The birth of the engineer and inventor James Watt, whose improvements to the steam engine are fundamental in bringing about the industrial revolution.
20 January 1936: King George V dies. He is succeeded by King Edward VIII, who abdicates 325 days later in order to marry Mrs Simpson.
21 January 1890: Two 1,000ft long test trains, each comprising a locomotive and 50 wagons, and each weighing 900 tons, roll onto the newly-built Forth Bridge side by side from the south.
21 January 1919: The birth in Leith of Captain Eric Brown, who goes on to become a renowned naval aviator and test pilot and who holds a record unlikely ever to be beaten for the largest number of different aircraft types flown by a single person, 487. In later life he was widely acknowledged by others as "the greatest pilot ever".
22 January 1689: An English convention declares that James VII/II has in practice abdicated; and sets out the basis on which his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange can succeed to the throne. This includes their accepting the primacy of Parliament and the stipulation that no Roman Catholic or spouse of a Roman Catholic can take the crown.
22 January 1788: The Romantic poet George Gordon Byron, later to become 6th Baron Byron, is born in London.
22 January 1901: Queen Victoria dies of a cerebral hemorrhage while staying at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.
22 January 1924: Ramsay MacDonald becomes Britain's first Labour Prime Minister, the first Prime Minister from a working-class background, and one of very few without a university education.
25 January 1759: The birth of Robert Burns.
25 January 1817: The Scotsman newspaper publishes its first edition in Edinburgh.
25 January 2012: First Minister Alex Salmond launches a consultation on the SNP Government's proposals for a referendum on Scottish independence, which they hope to hold in the autumn of 2014.
26 January 1861: The One O'Clock Gun is fired at Edinburgh Castle for the first time.
26 January 1878: The death of Kirkpatrick Macmillan, the blacksmith credited by many as the inventor of the rear-wheel driven bicycle.
26 January 1908: The 1st Glasgow Scout Group becomes the first scout troop to be officially registered.
26 January 1926 : John Logie Baird gives the first public demonstration of the television transmission of the picture of a human face to members of the Royal Institution and a reporter from The Times in his lab at 22 Frith Street, Soho.
27 January 1783: The newspaper the Glasgow Herald is published for the first time.
28 January 1290 : The death of Devorgilla, Lady of Galloway.
28 January 1928 : The death of Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, British commander in the First World War.
30 January 1647: The Scottish Covenanters march north and back to Scotland having handed Charles I over to the English in return for a payment of £200,000.
30 January 1649: Charles I is executed in London despite protests from the Scots.
31 January 1716: The Jacobites abandon Perth in the face of reinforced government forces.
31 January 1788: The death in exile in Rome of Charles Edward Stuart, better remembered as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or "The Young Pretender".
31 January 1918: The "Battle of May Island" takes place. This is the name given to a series of accidents between Royal Navy ships and submarines in the Firth of Forth that cost 104 men their lives.
31 January 1919: There are riots in Glasgow against rent levels and in favour of a shorter working week. The government responds by moving the army into the city.
31 January 1953: The early roll-on/roll-off ferry, MV Princess Victoria, sinks in a storm while en route from Stranraer to Larne with the loss of 133 lives.
31 January 1953: 66 members of the crew of the SS Clan Macquarrie are rescued after it runs aground near Borve on the Isle of Lewis in a storm.